Technical SEO

Domains & URLs

Examples of domain names:
facebook.com
github.com
bbc.co.uk

Examples of urls:
https://www.facebook.com
https://github.com
https://www.bbc.co.uk

That is a url is what a person has to type in (precisely) to reach a website. As you can see github.com doesn’t use www. in its url whilst both bbc.co.uk and facebook.com do. Almost all major websites and most websites in general should revert from one to the other (either from the www version to the non-www version or vice versa).

domain name is an identification string that defines control on the Internet. Domain names are used in networking and addressing purposes. A domain name identifies a network domain, or an Internet Protocol (IP) resource to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a website, or the web site itself. By 2020, 363.5 million domain names had been registered. 168 million of these are either .com or .net domain name registrations.

Top Level Domains

The top 10 ccTLDs, as of March 31, 2021, were .tk, .cn, .de, .uk, .nl, .ru, .br, .fr, .eu and .it.

most popular top level domains

11 MILLION .UK DOMAINS

Of the 11 million .co.uk registered domains on the internet:

  • only one (bbc.co.uk) is linked to by more than 100,000 subnets (assumed independent other domains).
  • only nine (bbc.co.uk, telegraph.co.uk, dailymail.co.uk, www.gov.uk, independent.co.uk, amazon.co.uk, google.co.uk, www.news.bbc.co.uk & guardian.co.uk) are linked to by more than 50,000 subnets.
  • Only 40 domains are linked to by 20,000 domains or more. Of these 40 only 33 are not Universities.
  • 32 of the the 100 most independently linked to .uk domains belong to Universities. Oxford (ox.ac.uk) beats out Cambridge (cam.ac.uk) by 49,931 to 46,005 for first place among them.
  • A further 11 of the top 100 domains that end with a .uk are governmental websites. So fully 44% of the UK’s leading websites as measured by inbound links are either Universities or government websites.

HTTP Status Codes

HTTP Request & HTTP Response

HTTP Response Status Codes

HTTP response status codes indicate whether a specific HTTP request has been successfully completed. Responses are grouped in five classes:

  1. Informational responses (100199)
  2. Successful responses (200299)
  3. Redirects (300399)
  4. Client errors (400499)
  5. Server errors (500599)

Information Responses

100 Continue This interim response indicates that everything so far is OK and that the client should continue the request, or ignore the response if the request is already finished.

101 Switching Protocol This code is sent in response to an Upgrade request header from the client, and indicates the protocol the server is switching to.

102 Processing (WebDAV) This code indicates that the server has received and is processing the request, but no response is available yet.

103 Early Hints This status code is primarily intended to be used with the Link header, letting the user agent start preloading resources while the server prepares a response.

Successful Responses

200 OK The request has succeeded. The meaning of the success depends on the HTTP method:

  • GET: The resource has been fetched and is transmitted in the message body.
  • HEAD: The representation headers are included in the response without any message body.
  • PUT or POST: The resource describing the result of the action is transmitted in the message body.
  • TRACE: The message body contains the request message as received by the server.

201 Created The request has succeeded and a new resource has been created as a result. This is typically the response sent after POST requests, or some PUT requests.

202 Accepted The request has been received but not yet acted upon. It is noncommittal, since there is no way in HTTP to later send an asynchronous response indicating the outcome of the request. It is intended for cases where another process or server handles the request, or for batch processing.

203 Non-Authoritative Information This response code means the returned meta-information is not exactly the same as is available from the origin server, but is collected from a local or a third-party copy. This is mostly used for mirrors or backups of another resource. Except for that specific case, the “200 OK” response is preferred to this status.

204 No Content There is no content to send for this request, but the headers may be useful. The user-agent may update its cached headers for this resource with the new ones.

205 Reset Content Tells the user-agent to reset the document which sent this request.

206 Partial Content This response code is used when the Range header is sent from the client to request only part of a resource.

207 Multi-Status (WebDAV) Conveys information about multiple resources, for situations where multiple status codes might be appropriate.

208 Already Reported (WebDAV) Used inside a <dav:propstat> response element to avoid repeatedly enumerating the internal members of multiple bindings to the same collection.

226 IM Used (HTTP Delta encoding) The server has fulfilled a GET request for the resource, and the response is a representation of the result of one or more instance-manipulations applied to the current instance.

Redirection Messages

300 Multiple Choice The request has more than one possible response. The user-agent or user should choose one of them. (There is no standardized way of choosing one of the responses, but HTML links to the possibilities are recommended so the user can pick.)

301 Moved Permanently The URL of the requested resource has been changed permanently. The new URL is given in the response.

302 Found This response code means that the URI of requested resource has been changed temporarily. Further changes in the URI might be made in the future. Therefore, this same URI should be used by the client in future requests.

303 See Other The server sent this response to direct the client to get the requested resource at another URI with a GET request.

304 Not Modified This is used for caching purposes. It tells the client that the response has not been modified, so the client can continue to use the same cached version of the response.

305 Use Proxy Defined in a previous version of the HTTP specification to indicate that a requested response must be accessed by a proxy. It has been deprecated due to security concerns regarding in-band configuration of a proxy.

306 unused This response code is no longer used; it is just reserved. It was used in a previous version of the HTTP/1.1 specification.

307 Temporary Redirect The server sends this response to direct the client to get the requested resource at another URI with same method that was used in the prior request. This has the same semantics as the 302 Found HTTP response code, with the exception that the user agent must not change the HTTP method used: If a POST was used in the first request, a POST must be used in the second request.

308 Permanent Redirect This means that the resource is now permanently located at another URI, specified by the Location: HTTP Response header. This has the same semantics as the 301 Moved Permanently HTTP response code, with the exception that the user agent must not change the HTTP method used: If a POST was used in the first request, a POST must be used in the second request.

Client Error Responses

400 Bad Request The server could not understand the request due to invalid syntax.

401 Unauthorized Although the HTTP standard specifies “unauthorized”, semantically this response means “unauthenticated”. That is, the client must authenticate itself to get the requested response.

402 Payment Required This response code is reserved for future use. The initial aim for creating this code was using it for digital payment systems, however this status code is used very rarely and no standard convention exists.

403 Forbidden The client does not have access rights to the content; that is, it is unauthorized, so the server is refusing to give the requested resource. Unlike 401, the client’s identity is known to the server.

404 Not Found The server can not find the requested resource. In the browser, this means the URL is not recognized. In an API, this can also mean that the endpoint is valid but the resource itself does not exist. Servers may also send this response instead of 403 to hide the existence of a resource from an unauthorized client. This response code is probably the most famous one due to its frequent occurrence on the web.

405 Method Not Allowed The request method is known by the server but is not supported by the target resource. For example, an API may forbid DELETE-ing a resource.

406 Not Acceptable This response is sent when the web server, after performing server-driven content negotiation, doesn’t find any content that conforms to the criteria given by the user agent.

407 Proxy Authentication Required This is similar to 401 but authentication is needed to be done by a proxy.

408 Request Timeout This response is sent on an idle connection by some servers, even without any previous request by the client. It means that the server would like to shut down this unused connection. This response is used much more since some browsers, like Chrome, Firefox 27+, or IE9, use HTTP pre-connection mechanisms to speed up surfing. Also note that some servers merely shut down the connection without sending this message.

409 Conflict This response is sent when a request conflicts with the current state of the server.

410 Gone This response is sent when the requested content has been permanently deleted from server, with no forwarding address. Clients are expected to remove their caches and links to the resource. The HTTP specification intends this status code to be used for “limited-time, promotional services”. APIs should not feel compelled to indicate resources that have been deleted with this status code.

411 Length Required Server rejected the request because the Content-Length header field is not defined and the server requires it.

412 Precondition Failed The client has indicated preconditions in its headers which the server does not meet.

413 Payload Too Large Request entity is larger than limits defined by server; the server might close the connection or return an Retry-After header field.

414 URI Too Long The URI requested by the client is longer than the server is willing to interpret.

415 Unsupported Media Type The media format of the requested data is not supported by the server, so the server is rejecting the request.

416 Range Not Satisfiable The range specified by the Range header field in the request can’t be fulfilled; it’s possible that the range is outside the size of the target URI’s data.

417 Expectation Failed This response code means the expectation indicated by the Expect request header field can’t be met by the server.

418 I'm a teapot The server refuses the attempt to brew coffee with a teapot.

421 Misdirected Request The request was directed at a server that is not able to produce a response. This can be sent by a server that is not configured to produce responses for the combination of scheme and authority that are included in the request URI.

422 Unprocessable Entity (WebDAV) The request was well-formed but was unable to be followed due to semantic errors.

423 Locked (WebDAV) The resource that is being accessed is locked.

424 Failed Dependency (WebDAV) The request failed due to failure of a previous request.

425 Too Early Indicates that the server is unwilling to risk processing a request that might be replayed.

426 Upgrade Required The server refuses to perform the request using the current protocol but might be willing to do so after the client upgrades to a different protocol. The server sends an Upgrade header in a 426 response to indicate the required protocol(s).

428 Precondition Required The origin server requires the request to be conditional. This response is intended to prevent the ‘lost update’ problem, where a client GETs a resource’s state, modifies it, and PUTs it back to the server, when meanwhile a third party has modified the state on the server, leading to a conflict.

429 Too Many Requests The user has sent too many requests in a given amount of time (“rate limiting”).

431 Request Header Fields Too Large The server is unwilling to process the request because its header fields are too large. The request may be resubmitted after reducing the size of the request header fields.

451 Unavailable For Legal Reasons The user-agent requested a resource that cannot legally be provided, such as a web page censored by a government.

Server Error Responses

500 Internal Server ErrorThe server has encountered a situation it doesn’t know how to handle.501 Not ImplementedThe request method is not supported by the server and cannot be handled. The only methods that servers are required to support (and therefore that must not return this code) are GET and HEAD.502 Bad GatewayThis error response means that the server, while working as a gateway to get a response needed to handle the request, got an invalid response.503 Service UnavailableThe server is not ready to handle the request. Common causes are a server that is down for maintenance or that is overloaded. Note that together with this response, a user-friendly page explaining the problem should be sent. This response should be used for temporary conditions and the Retry-After: HTTP header should, if possible, contain the estimated time before the recovery of the service. The webmaster must also take care about the caching-related headers that are sent along with this response, as these temporary condition responses should usually not be cached.504 Gateway TimeoutThis error response is given when the server is acting as a gateway and cannot get a response in time.505 HTTP Version Not SupportedThe HTTP version used in the request is not supported by the server.506 Variant Also NegotiatesThe server has an internal configuration error: the chosen variant resource is configured to engage in transparent content negotiation itself, and is therefore not a proper end point in the negotiation process.507 Insufficient Storage (WebDAV)The method could not be performed on the resource because the server is unable to store the representation needed to successfully complete the request.508 Loop Detected (WebDAV)The server detected an infinite loop while processing the request.510 Not ExtendedFurther extensions to the request are required for the server to fulfill it.511 Network Authentication RequiredThe 511 status code indicates that the client needs to authenticate to gain network access.

2xx/3xx/4xx/5xx/1xx server responses

Redirects & Canonicalization

404 errors vs 301 redirects
301 Redirect

A 301 redirect is a way to permanently move one URL to another. The user types in one URL and a different one gets served to them. The original URL is never loaded, it just redirects to the new URL. This causes a small delay in load times, which for most websites doesn’t amount to being of material importance. For larger SEO clients, the 10-35ms delay can be an issue and I work creatively to get this down as low as possible where the 301 is absolutely necessary.

There are many ways to put a 301 redirect into place. Generally speaking the prefered methods would be within the .htaccess file but this can vary depending on what web server you are using and other factors.

When To Use A Redirect

When you have two equal pages and you don’t need both live you should use a redirect.

Examples of when to use a redirect include:

  • Product pages of products you no longer sell.
  • Out-of-date pages.
  • Page has been removed from your site.
  • A page has been moved.
Canonicalization

The canonical tag was introduced in the early part of the 2010’s. The main use for the canonical tag is to let a webmaster decide the preferred URL of a page that’s similar to another page. According to Google, the canonical link element is not considered to be a directive, but rather a hint. Matt Cutts, then the head of Google’s webspam team, has said that Google prefers 301 redirects. He said this is because Googlebot can choose to ignore a canonical link element.

When To Use Canonicalization

If you can’t prevent the URL from being crawled and it’s very similar to another URL. Some examples:

  • For the “print version” of a page.
  • Sorting of Ecommerce pages (e.g., a URL that shows the same products but sorted by price high to low).
  • Unwanted parameters – eg from a paid search campaign.
  • Products that qualify for multiple categories.
  • When users can alters the layout of content, without changing the content itself.

The canonical tag:

<link href="https://example.com" rel="canonical">
canonical pages

Robots.Txt & Robots Meta Directives

A robots.txt file tells search engine crawlers which URLs the crawler can access on your site. Pretty much all websites have a robots.txt file (well the vast majority certainly) and they’re really easy to find too. Just type in website.com/robots.txt and you will find which URLs a given website wants search engines to crawl and which ones it asks it not to. The following is Google.com’s own robots.txt file (how trippy is that)?

User-agent: *
Disallow: /search
Allow: /search/about
Allow: /search/static
Allow: /search/howsearchworks
Disallow: /sdch
Disallow: /groups
Disallow: /index.html?
Disallow: /?
Allow: /?hl=
Disallow: /?hl=*&
Allow: /?hl=*&gws_rd=ssl$
Disallow: /?hl=*&*&gws_rd=ssl
Allow: /?gws_rd=ssl$
Allow: /?pt1=true$
Disallow: /imgres
Disallow: /u/
Disallow: /preferences
Disallow: /setprefs
Disallow: /default
Disallow: /m?
Disallow: /m/
Allow:    /m/finance
Disallow: /wml?
Disallow: /wml/?
Disallow: /wml/search?
Disallow: /xhtml?
Disallow: /xhtml/?
Disallow: /xhtml/search?
Disallow: /xml?
Disallow: /imode?
Disallow: /imode/?
Disallow: /imode/search?
Disallow: /jsky?
Disallow: /jsky/?
Disallow: /jsky/search?
Disallow: /pda?
Disallow: /pda/?
Disallow: /pda/search?
Disallow: /sprint_xhtml
Disallow: /sprint_wml
Disallow: /pqa
Disallow: /palm
Disallow: /gwt/
Disallow: /purchases
Disallow: /local?
Disallow: /local_url
Disallow: /shihui?
Disallow: /shihui/
Disallow: /products?
Disallow: /product_
Disallow: /products_
Disallow: /products;
Disallow: /print
Disallow: /books/
Disallow: /bkshp?*q=*
Disallow: /books?*q=*
Disallow: /books?*output=*
Disallow: /books?*pg=*
Disallow: /books?*jtp=*
Disallow: /books?*jscmd=*
Disallow: /books?*buy=*
Disallow: /books?*zoom=*
Allow: /books?*q=related:*
Allow: /books?*q=editions:*
Allow: /books?*q=subject:*
Allow: /books/about
Allow: /booksrightsholders
Allow: /books?*zoom=1*
Allow: /books?*zoom=5*
Allow: /books/content?*zoom=1*
Allow: /books/content?*zoom=5*
Disallow: /ebooks/
Disallow: /ebooks?*q=*
Disallow: /ebooks?*output=*
Disallow: /ebooks?*pg=*
Disallow: /ebooks?*jscmd=*
Disallow: /ebooks?*buy=*
Disallow: /ebooks?*zoom=*
Allow: /ebooks?*q=related:*
Allow: /ebooks?*q=editions:*
Allow: /ebooks?*q=subject:*
Allow: /ebooks?*zoom=1*
Allow: /ebooks?*zoom=5*
Disallow: /patents?
Disallow: /patents/download/
Disallow: /patents/pdf/
Disallow: /patents/related/
Disallow: /scholar
Disallow: /citations?
Allow: /citations?user=
Disallow: /citations?*cstart=
Allow: /citations?view_op=new_profile
Allow: /citations?view_op=top_venues
Allow: /scholar_share
Disallow: /s?
Allow: /maps?*output=classic*
Allow: /maps?*file=
Allow: /maps/d/
Disallow: /maps?
Disallow: /mapstt?
Disallow: /mapslt?
Disallow: /maps/stk/
Disallow: /maps/br?
Disallow: /mapabcpoi?
Disallow: /maphp?
Disallow: /mapprint?
Disallow: /maps/api/js/
Allow: /maps/api/js
Disallow: /maps/api/place/js/
Disallow: /maps/api/staticmap
Disallow: /maps/api/streetview
Disallow: /maps/_/sw/manifest.json
Disallow: /mld?
Disallow: /staticmap?
Disallow: /maps/preview
Disallow: /maps/place
Disallow: /maps/timeline/
Disallow: /help/maps/streetview/partners/welcome/
Disallow: /help/maps/indoormaps/partners/
Disallow: /lochp?
Disallow: /center
Disallow: /ie?
Disallow: /blogsearch/
Disallow: /blogsearch_feeds
Disallow: /advanced_blog_search
Disallow: /uds/
Disallow: /chart?
Disallow: /transit?
Allow:    /calendar$
Allow:    /calendar/about/
Disallow: /calendar/
Disallow: /cl2/feeds/
Disallow: /cl2/ical/
Disallow: /coop/directory
Disallow: /coop/manage
Disallow: /trends?
Disallow: /trends/music?
Disallow: /trends/hottrends?
Disallow: /trends/viz?
Disallow: /trends/embed.js?
Disallow: /trends/fetchComponent?
Disallow: /trends/beta
Disallow: /trends/topics
Disallow: /musica
Disallow: /musicad
Disallow: /musicas
Disallow: /musicl
Disallow: /musics
Disallow: /musicsearch
Disallow: /musicsp
Disallow: /musiclp
Disallow: /urchin_test/
Disallow: /movies?
Disallow: /wapsearch?
Allow: /safebrowsing/diagnostic
Allow: /safebrowsing/report_badware/
Allow: /safebrowsing/report_error/
Allow: /safebrowsing/report_phish/
Disallow: /reviews/search?
Disallow: /orkut/albums
Disallow: /cbk
Disallow: /recharge/dashboard/car
Disallow: /recharge/dashboard/static/
Disallow: /profiles/me
Allow: /profiles
Disallow: /s2/profiles/me
Allow: /s2/profiles
Allow: /s2/oz
Allow: /s2/photos
Allow: /s2/search/social
Allow: /s2/static
Disallow: /s2
Disallow: /transconsole/portal/
Disallow: /gcc/
Disallow: /aclk
Disallow: /cse?
Disallow: /cse/home
Disallow: /cse/panel
Disallow: /cse/manage
Disallow: /tbproxy/
Disallow: /imesync/
Disallow: /shenghuo/search?
Disallow: /support/forum/search?
Disallow: /reviews/polls/
Disallow: /hosted/images/
Disallow: /ppob/?
Disallow: /ppob?
Disallow: /accounts/ClientLogin
Disallow: /accounts/ClientAuth
Disallow: /accounts/o8
Allow: /accounts/o8/id
Disallow: /topicsearch?q=
Disallow: /xfx7/
Disallow: /squared/api
Disallow: /squared/search
Disallow: /squared/table
Disallow: /qnasearch?
Disallow: /app/updates
Disallow: /sidewiki/entry/
Disallow: /quality_form?
Disallow: /labs/popgadget/search
Disallow: /buzz/post
Disallow: /compressiontest/
Disallow: /analytics/feeds/
Disallow: /analytics/partners/comments/
Disallow: /analytics/portal/
Disallow: /analytics/uploads/
Allow: /alerts/manage
Allow: /alerts/remove
Disallow: /alerts/
Allow: /alerts/$
Disallow: /ads/search?
Disallow: /ads/plan/action_plan?
Disallow: /ads/plan/api/
Disallow: /ads/hotels/partners
Disallow: /phone/compare/?
Disallow: /travel/clk
Disallow: /travel/hotelier/terms/
Disallow: /hotelfinder/rpc
Disallow: /hotels/rpc
Disallow: /commercesearch/services/
Disallow: /evaluation/
Disallow: /chrome/browser/mobile/tour
Disallow: /compare/*/apply*
Disallow: /forms/perks/
Disallow: /shopping/suppliers/search
Disallow: /ct/
Disallow: /edu/cs4hs/
Disallow: /trustedstores/s/
Disallow: /trustedstores/tm2
Disallow: /trustedstores/verify
Disallow: /adwords/proposal
Disallow: /shopping?*
Disallow: /shopping/product/
Disallow: /shopping/seller
Disallow: /shopping/ratings/account/metrics
Disallow: /shopping/ratings/merchant/immersivedetails
Disallow: /shopping/reviewer
Disallow: /about/careers/applications/
Disallow: /landing/signout.html
Disallow: /webmasters/sitemaps/ping?
Disallow: /ping?
Disallow: /gallery/
Disallow: /landing/now/ontap/
Allow: /searchhistory/
Allow: /maps/reserve
Allow: /maps/reserve/partners
Disallow: /maps/reserve/api/
Disallow: /maps/reserve/search
Disallow: /maps/reserve/bookings
Disallow: /maps/reserve/settings
Disallow: /maps/reserve/manage
Disallow: /maps/reserve/payment
Disallow: /maps/reserve/receipt
Disallow: /maps/reserve/sellersignup
Disallow: /maps/reserve/payments
Disallow: /maps/reserve/feedback
Disallow: /maps/reserve/terms
Disallow: /maps/reserve/m/
Disallow: /maps/reserve/b/
Disallow: /maps/reserve/partner-dashboard
Disallow: /about/views/
Disallow: /intl/*/about/views/
Disallow: /local/cars
Disallow: /local/cars/
Disallow: /local/dealership/
Disallow: /local/dining/
Disallow: /local/place/products/
Disallow: /local/place/reviews/
Disallow: /local/place/rap/
Disallow: /local/tab/
Disallow: /localservices/*
Allow: /finance
Allow: /js/
Disallow: /nonprofits/account/

# AdsBot
User-agent: AdsBot-Google
Disallow: /maps/api/js/
Allow: /maps/api/js
Disallow: /maps/api/place/js/
Disallow: /maps/api/staticmap
Disallow: /maps/api/streetview

# Crawlers of certain social media sites are allowed to access page markup when google.com/imgres* links are shared. To learn more, please contact images-robots-allowlist@google.com.
User-agent: Twitterbot
Allow: /imgres

User-agent: facebookexternalhit
Allow: /imgres

Sitemap: https://www.google.com/sitemap.xml

Schema.Org Markup

schema markup for financial products

Schemas are a set of ‘types’, each associated with a set of properties. The types are arranged in a hierarchy. There are currently 779 Types, 1390 Properties, 15 Datatypes, 81 Enumerations and 437 Enumeration members. I will illustrate how deep you can go into one below…

Types
  • Thing
    • Action
    • CreativeWork
    • Event
    • Intangible
    • MedicalEntity
    • Organization
    • Person
    • Place
    • Product

So we have a Thing that is an Action. Furthermore we can further describe this Action as one of the following…

Action

  • AchieveAction
  • AssessAction
  • ConsumeAction
  • ControlAction
  • CreateAction
  • FindAction
  • InteractAction
  • MoveAction
  • OrganizeAction
  • PlayAction
  • SearchAction
  • SeekToAction
  • SolveMathAction
  • TradeAction
  • TransferAction
  • UpdateAction

I’ve gone with TransferAction… we can further describe this Action which is a Transfer as one of the following:

TransferAction

  • BorrowAction
  • DownloadAction
  • GiveAction
  • LendAction
  • MoneyTransfer
  • ReceiveAction
  • ReturnAction
  • SendAction
  • TakeAction

So the TransferAction is a MoneyTransfer or as Schema.org describes it The act of transferring money from one place to another place. This may occur electronically or physically.

The actual full Schema.org Type would include details such as:

PropertyExpected TypeDescription
Properties from MoneyTransfer
amountMonetaryAmount or
Number
The amount of money.
beneficiaryBankBankOrCreditUnion or
Text
A bank or bank’s branch, financial institution or international financial institution operating the beneficiary’s bank account or releasing funds for the beneficiary.
Properties from TransferAction
fromLocationPlaceA sub property of location. The original location of the object or the agent before the action.
toLocationPlaceA sub property of location. The final location of the object or the agent after the action.
Properties from Action
actionStatusActionStatusTypeIndicates the current disposition of the Action.
agentOrganization or
Person
The direct performer or driver of the action (animate or inanimate). e.g. John wrote a book.
endTimeDateTime or
Time
The endTime of something. For a reserved event or service (e.g. FoodEstablishmentReservation), the time that it is expected to end. For actions that span a period of time, when the action was performed. e.g. John wrote a book from January to December. For media, including audio and video, it’s the time offset of the end of a clip within a larger file.Note that Event uses startDate/endDate instead of startTime/endTime, even when describing dates with times. This situation may be clarified in future revisions.
errorThingFor failed actions, more information on the cause of the failure.
instrumentThingThe object that helped the agent perform the action. e.g. John wrote a book with a pen.
locationPlace or
PostalAddress or
Text or
VirtualLocation
The location of, for example, where an event is happening, where an organization is located, or where an action takes place.
objectThingThe object upon which the action is carried out, whose state is kept intact or changed. Also known as the semantic roles patient, affected or undergoer (which change their state) or theme (which doesn’t). e.g. John read a book.
participantOrganization or
Person
Other co-agents that participated in the action indirectly. e.g. John wrote a book with Steve.
resultThingThe result produced in the action. e.g. John wrote a book.
startTimeDateTime or
Time
The startTime of something. For a reserved event or service (e.g. FoodEstablishmentReservation), the time that it is expected to start. For actions that span a period of time, when the action was performed. e.g. John wrote a book from January to December. For media, including audio and video, it’s the time offset of the start of a clip within a larger file.Note that Event uses startDate/endDate instead of startTime/endTime, even when describing dates with times. This situation may be clarified in future revisions.
targetEntryPointIndicates a target EntryPoint for an Action.
Properties from Thing
additionalTypeURLAn additional type for the item, typically used for adding more specific types from external vocabularies in microdata syntax. This is a relationship between something and a class that the thing is in. In RDFa syntax, it is better to use the native RDFa syntax – the ‘typeof’ attribute – for multiple types. Schema.org tools may have only weaker understanding of extra types, in particular those defined externally.
alternateNameTextAn alias for the item.
descriptionTextA description of the item.
disambiguatingDescriptionTextA sub property of description. A short description of the item used to disambiguate from other, similar items. Information from other properties (in particular, name) may be necessary for the description to be useful for disambiguation.
identifierPropertyValue or
Text or
URL
The identifier property represents any kind of identifier for any kind of Thing, such as ISBNs, GTIN codes, UUIDs etc. Schema.org provides dedicated properties for representing many of these, either as textual strings or as URL (URI) links. See background notes for more details.
imageImageObject or
URL
An image of the item. This can be a URL or a fully described ImageObject.
mainEntityOfPageCreativeWork or
URL
Indicates a page (or other CreativeWork) for which this thing is the main entity being described. See background notes for details.
Inverse property: mainEntity
nameTextThe name of the item.
potentialActionActionIndicates a potential Action, which describes an idealized action in which this thing would play an ‘object’ role.
sameAsURLURL of a reference Web page that unambiguously indicates the item’s identity. E.g. the URL of the item’s Wikipedia page, Wikidata entry, or official website.
subjectOfCreativeWork or
Event
A CreativeWork or Event about this Thing.
Inverse property: about
urlURLURL of the item.

So schema.org markup allows us to do a very deep dive when providing information about a thing (or event or person or place etc) – its akin to a child who won’t stop asking questions. You can provide a complete and near exhaustive run through of almost anything.

schema markup for Loans or Credit
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