5-HTP – a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
AAKG – a salt of the amino acid arginine and alpha-ketoglutaric acid. The components are intermediates in the metabolism of nitric oxides, but no reputable scientific evidence shows any benefits from taking AAKG as a dietary supplement.
Acetyl L Carnitine – an acetylated form of L-carnitine. Acetylcarnitine is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for breakdown.
Acetylcholine – an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics.
Adderall – a combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. By salt content, the active ingredients of Adderall is 25% levoamphetamine salts (the levorotary or ‘left-handed’ enantiomer) and 75% dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrorotary or ‘right-handed’ enantiomer).
Adrafinil – a discontinued eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly. It was also used off-label by individuals who wished to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who needed to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Additionally, “adrafinil is known to a larger nonscientific audience, where it is considered to be a nootropic agent.”
African Mango – Food supplements under the name “African mango” are marketed for management of body weight. Clinical trials to date have not confirmed their efficacy, although a meta-analysis concluded that Irvingia gabonensis showed “some potential benefit for weight loss”.
Alpha GPC – L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.