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Google Releases Website Builder for Small Businesses

Google has officially released a single-page website builder designed for small businesses. The new tool, simply called “Website”, is free and promises to allow small business owners to create and edit websites in minutes on either desktop or mobile.

According to Google, 60% of small businesses worldwide do not have their own website. Google is clearly trying to increase that number with the rollout of its new website builder.

Website is an extension of Google My Business, which means you will need to have a completely filled out GMB listing in order to make use of the tool. Google will automatically pull the information from your GMB listing to create the website, which can then be customized with themes, photos, and text.

If it’s your first time claiming a GMB listing, Google will automatically invite you to begin creating an accompanying website. If you already have a listing then sign in to Google My Business, click “Manage location”, and then select Website from the menu. Alternatively, you can start creating your website through this landing page.

Follow the instructions on the screen, and when you’re satisfied you can go ahead and publish it for the world to see. By default, sites created with Website will follow the domain structure: “yourcompany.business.site.” A custom domain can be purchased from the Settings menu in your account, and Google will automatically connect your site with the new domain.

After publishing your site, updating it is as simple as updating your GMB listing. Any updates made to your GMB listing will be automatically applied to your website.

Google’s website builder is decidedly limited by design, lacking many of the features you would find in a more robust content management system. However, that’s the trade-off you get with using a free, user-friendly tool that also comes with free hosting. It’s not a perfect solution, but it’s arguably better than having no website at all.

For more information see Google’s help document.

Google to ramp up AI efforts to ID extremism on YouTube

Last week Facebook solicited help with what it dubbed “hard questions” — including how it should tackle the spread of terrorism propaganda on its platform.

Yesterday Google followed suit with its own public pronouncement, via an op-ed in the FT newspaper, explaining how it’s ramping up measures to tackle extremist content.

Both companies have been coming under increasing political pressure in Europe especially to do more to quash extremist content — with politicians including in the UK and Germany pointing the finger of blame at platforms such as YouTube for hosting hate speech and extremist content.

Europe has suffered a spate of terror attacks in recent years, with four in the UK alone since March. And governments in the UK and France are currently considering whether to introduce a new liability for tech platforms that fail to promptly remove terrorist content — arguing that terrorists are being radicalized with the help of such content.

Earlier this month the UK’s prime minister also called for international agreements between allied, democratic governments to “regulate cyberspace to prevent the spread of extremism and terrorist planning”.

While in Germany a proposal that includes big fines for social media firms that fail to take down hate speech has already gained government backing.

Besides the threat of fines being cast into law, there’s an additional commercial incentive for Google after YouTube faced an advertiser backlash earlier this year related to ads being displayed alongside extremist content, with several companies pulling their ads from the platform.

Google subsequently updated the platform’s guidelines to stop ads being served to controversial content, including videos containing “hateful content” and “incendiary and demeaning content” so their makers could no longer monetize the content via Google’s ad network. Although the company still needs to be able to identify such content for this measure to be successful.

Rather than requesting ideas for combating the spread of extremist content, as Facebook did last week, Google is simply stating what its plan of action is — detailing four additional steps it says it’s going to take, and conceding that more action is needed to limit the spread of violent extremism.

“While we and others have worked for years to identify and remove content that violates our policies, the uncomfortable truth is that we, as an industry, must acknowledge that more needs to be done. Now,” writes Kent Walker, general counsel 

The four additional steps Walker lists are:

  1. increased use of machine learning technology to try to automatically identify “extremist and terrorism-related videos” — though the company cautions this “can be challenging”, pointing out that news networks can also broadcast terror attack videos, for example.”We have used video analysis models to find and assess more than 50 per cent of the terrorism-related content we have removed over the past six months. We will now devote more engineering resources to apply our most advanced machine learning research to train new ‘content classifiers’ to help us more quickly identify and remove extremist and terrorism-related content,” writes Walker
  2. more independent (human) experts in YouTube’s Trusted Flagger program — aka people in the YouTube community who have a high accuracy rate for flagging problem content. Google says it will add 50 “expert NGOs”, in areas such as hate speech, self-harm and terrorism, to the existing list of 63 organizations that are already involved with flagging content, and will be offering “operational grants” to support them. It is also going to work with more counter-extremist groups to try to identify content that may be being used to radicalize and recruit extremists.
    “Machines can help identify problematic videos, but human experts still play a role in nuanced decisions about the line between violent propaganda and religious or newsworthy speech. While many user flags can be inaccurate, Trusted Flagger reports are accurate over 90 per cent of the time and help us scale our efforts and identify emerging areas of concern,” writes Walker.
  3. a tougher stance on controversial videos that do clearly violate YouTube’s community guidelines — including by adding interstitial warnings to videos that contain inflammatory religious or supremacist content. Googles notes these videos also “will not be monetised, recommended or eligible for comments or user endorsements” — idea being they will have less engagement and be harder to find. “We think this strikes the right balance between free expression and access to information without promoting extremely offensive viewpoints,” writes Walker.
  4. expanding counter-radicalisation efforts by working with (other Alphabet division) Jigsaw to implement the “Redirect Method” more broadly across Europe. “This promising approach harnesses the power of targeted online advertising to reach potential Isis recruits, and redirects them towards anti-terrorist videos that can change their minds about joining. In previous deployments of this system, potential recruits have clicked through on the ads at an unusually high rate, and watched over half a million minutes of video content that debunks terrorist recruiting messages,” says Walker.

Despite increasing political pressure over extremism — and the attendant bad PR (not to mention threat of big fines) — Google is evidently hoping to retain its torch-bearing stance as a supporter of free speech by continuing to host controversial hate speech on its platform, just in a way that means it can’t be directly accused of providing violent individuals with a revenue stream. (Assuming it’s able to correctly identify all the problem content, of course.)

Whether this compromise will please either side on the ‘remove hate speech’ vs ‘retain free speech’ debate remains to be seen. The risk is it will please neither demographic.

The success of the approach will also stand or fall on how quickly and accurately Google is able to identify content deemed a problem — and policing user-generated content at such scale is a very hard problem.

It’s not clear exactly how many thousands of content reviewers Google employs at this point — we’ve asked and will update this post with any response.

Facebook recently added an additional 3,000 to its headcount, bringing the total number of reviewers to 7,500. CEO Mark Zuckerberg also wants to apply AI to the content identification issue but has previously said it’s unlikely to be able to do this successfully for “many years”.

Touching on what Google has been doing already to tackle extremist content, i.e. prior to these additional measures, Walker writes: “We have thousands of people around the world who review and counter abuse of our platforms. Our engineers have developed technology to prevent re-uploads of known terrorist content using image-matching technology. We have invested in systems that use content-based signals to help identify new videos for removal. And we have developed partnerships with expert groups, counter-extremism agencies, and the other technology companies to help inform and strengthen our efforts.”

EU sources say $1.17 billion antitrust fine against Google coming in weeks

For the past several months, there has been a steady drumbeat of reports that the EU was preparing to fine Google for alleged search market abuses. The drumbeat is getting louder, and reportedly the fine will be around one billion euros ($1.17 billion).

The EU has authority to fine the company up to 10 percent of its gross earnings — or something approaching $9 billion. Why it’s a billion and not some other amount is unclear; there doesn’t appear to be a formula. It appears, rather, the amount is a “big number” that will get attention and be sufficiently punitive.

This fine is being imposed for Google’s alleged abuses in shopping search. The original EU Statement of Objections (antitrust charges) claims, among other things, that:

  • Google systematically positions and prominently displays its comparison shopping service in its general search results pages, irrespective of its merits.
  • Google does not apply to its own comparison shopping service the system of penalties which it applies to other comparison shopping services on the basis of defined parameters, and which can lead to the lowering of the rank in which they appear in Google’s general search results pages.
  • As a result of Google’s systematic favouring of its subsequent comparison shopping services, Google Product Search and Google Shopping, both experienced higher rates of growth, to the detriment of rival comparison shopping services.

The case is a template of sorts for other areas in search that similarly show Google results at the top of the page (e.g., Maps/Local). In addition, it’s the first of three active antitrust matters being pursued by the EU against the company. The other two involve exclusivity provisions in Google AdWords agreements and Android-OEM contracts, which carry similar potential fines.

Google has vigorously argued in contrast that its practices benefit consumers:

Google has always worked to improve its services, creating new ways to provide better answers and show more useful ads. We’ve taken seriously the concerns in the European Commission’s Statement of Objections (SO) that our innovations are anti-competitive. The response we filed today shows why we believe those allegations are incorrect, and why we believe that Google increases choice for European consumers and offers valuable opportunities for businesses of all sizes.

Google and the EU had worked for some time a few years ago to settle the case, and more than one tentative settlement was reached. However, former European Commission competition czar Joaquín Almunia was not able to win approval for the negotiated agreements. His successor, Margrethe Vestager, has been much tougher.

If the fine is imposed, Google will likely appeal to the European Court of Justice.

Google SERP Features

Search engine optimization specialists and PPC advertisers alike vie for the same precious real estate in the most prominent parts of the SERPs, but competition is fierce and technological developments in search mean it’s more important than ever for digital marketers to know how search works and what they can do to maximize their visibility.

  1. AdWords (Top) 54.8% +1.8% – To be eligible for a top spot, your ad needs to meet a minimum Ad Rank threshold. The minimum Ad Rank required to appear above search results is generally greater than the minimum Ad Rank to appear below search results.
  2. HTTPS Results 53.1% +0% – HTTPS (also called HTTP over Transport Layer Security (TLS), HTTP over SSL, and HTTP Secure) is a communications protocol for secure communication over a computer network which is widely used on the Internet. HTTPS consists of communication over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) within a connection encrypted by Transport Layer Security, or its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer. The main motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the visited website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data.
  3. Knowledge Panels 50.7% +0.1% – Like search results, whether or not a business’s information will appear in the Knowledge Panel is determined by a variety of factors. Relevance, distance and the prominence of the business all contribute to its standing in local search results. Verifying a business does not guarantee that it will appear in the Knowledge Panel.
  4. Reviews (Stars) 37% +0.2% – having the review stars in the search results for your local business’ products and/or services can have a positive effect on the CTR (Click Through Rate). Here is the product page specific coding required to implement JSON-LD for aggregated reviews:        <script type=”application/ld+json”>
    { “@context”: “http://schema.org”,
    “@type”: “Product”,
    “name”: “##PRODUCT###”,
    “aggregateRating”:
    {“@type”: “AggregateRating”,
    “ratingValue”: “##RATING##”,
    “reviewCount”: “##REVIEWS##”
    }
    }
    </script>
  5. AdWords (Bottom) 31.5% +2.1%
  6. Related Questions 20.4% -1.2% – The Related Questions card shows algorithmically-generated questions that Google believes might relate to your search. Each question expands to something that looks like a Featured Snippet. Related Questions are mixed into organic results and their location in the SERP may vary.
  7. Local Packs 19.3% +0.4% – on August 7th 2015 Google made the decision to reduce the familiar local pack from seven listings to three listings.
  8. Site-links 18.9% -1.1% – Google only show sitelinks for results when they think it’ll be useful to the user. If the structure of your site doesn’t allow our algorithms to find good sitelinks, or Google don’t think that the sitelinks for your site are relevant for the user’s query, they won’t show them.
  9. Featured Snippets 15.2% +0.5% – When a user asks a question in Google Search, they might show a search result in a special featured snippet block at the top of the search results page. This featured snippet block includes a summary of the answer, extracted from a webpage, plus a link to the page, the page title and URL.
  10. Top Stories 14.6% -15.7% – Google has replaced the ‘In the news’ title with ‘Top stories’ on desktop to bring it more in line with the mobile version of the search results.
  11. Images 12.2% +3.6%
  12. Shopping (Paid) 11.6% +0.2% – Paid Shopping results or Product Listing Ads (PLAs) sell products directly with rich information, such as images and pricing.
  13. Local Panels 8.8% -0.2% – Users can toggle between a local listing’s overview details and their reviews in the Google search results.
  14. Videos 7.1% -0.8% – Video results (especially YouTube) may display a thumbnail. They used to be a true vertical but are now more of an organic enhancement.
  15. In-depth Articles 7% +5.9% –  in-depth articles are a subset of results that highlight long-form content for topics that a user might be trying to research.
  16. Tweets 5% +16.2% – In 2015, Google began displaying tweets directly in SERPs, mixed in with organic results.
  17. Knowledge Cards 4.1% -0.2% – The description should provide an adequate explanation of what the entity is without going into so much detail as to distract from the search results page. In the case of queries directed toward learning, browsing or discovery, the knowledge card helps searchers. It supplies users with basic factual information about a query. The knowledge card can help a user navigate to related content in a seamless and natural way. The knowledge card potentially helps users find information faster than they would by clicking through search results.
  18. Medical Knowledge 2.4% -3.6% – Google has said that “one in 20 Google searches are for health-related information.” To improve the quality of health-related search content, Google is introducing structured and curated health information into the PC knowledge panel and info cards that appear in mobile search results. Google has tapped doctors, medical illustrators and the Mayo Clinic to develop in-depth information for more than 400 health and medical conditions.
  19. Carousels (KG) 1.1% -4.2% – The carousel listings don’t include links to sites; clicking on one of them will simply get you to a new search results page.

Google will start blocking online ads in 2018

In an effort to force publishers to rethink the way they deliver ads on their websites, Google will be introducing its own ad blocker in 2018. According to the Wall Street Journal, Google is giving publishers six months to prepare for the new tool, which will block ads on sites with “bad advertising experiences” and will reportedly be turned on by default in both the desktop and mobile versions of Chrome.

While we’ve known about the Google ad blocker since April, this week marks the first time that Google has confirmed the move. Sridhar Ramaswamy, SVP of ads and commerce, explained in a blog post on Thursday that “we plan to have Chrome stop showing ads (including those owned or served by Google) on websites that are not compliant with the Better Ads Standards starting in early 2018.”

Thankfully, before the ad blocker goes into effect, Google will give publishers the opportunity to use its new Ad Experience Report tool, which elucidates the differences between an acceptable experience and one that doesn’t conform to the Better Ads Standards. Once the publisher has determined which ads won’t fly under the new system, they can check this post for ads to use instead.

This might sound troublesome for publishers who depend on ad revenue to keep their sites up and running, but considering the fact that 26% of US internet users already use third-party ad blockers, this could end up helping. Third-party ad blockers, like Adblock Plus, block each and every ad, regardless of how annoying or intrusive they are. Google’s ad blocker will only block ads when they don’t conform to the Better Ads Standards, which means that sites with tame ad experiences will be spared.

Google is also introducing another tool called Funding Choices, which will allow publishers to “show a customized message to visitors using an ad blocker, inviting them to either enable ads on their site, or pay for a pass that removes all ads on that site through the new Google Contributor.”

-BGR

Google, Twitter working to remove terror-related content after attacks

Social media giants Google and Twitter are responding to British Prime Minister Theresa May’s statement that internet companies are complicit in terror attacks by giving extremist views “the safe space it needs to breed.”

Nick Pickles, UK head of public policy at Twitter, said: “We continue to expand the use of technology as part of a systematic approach to removing this type of content.”

Google said, “We are committed to working in partnership with the government and NGOs to tackle these challenging and complex problems, and share the government’s commitment to ensuring terrorists do not have a voice online.”

London police haven’t said what role, if any, social media or information from the internet factored into Saturday night’s attack that killed seven people.

  • Associated Press

Google Lens: Search the Web With Your Phone’s Camera

Google Lens integrates Google’s search engine with a smartphone’s camera. By taking a photo with Google Lens your camera will be able to recognize objects and search for them on the web. Another demo showed connecting to a WiFi network after taking a picture of the name and password.

A further search-related example involving taking a picture of a restaurant menu in a foreign language. Google Lens returned both a translated version of the menu and pictures of the dishes. Google Lens can source information from Google My Business and Google Maps. By taking a photo of a restaurant you can see reviews, hours of operation, contact information, and more.

Google Lens can also work with Google Assistant. After taking a picture of a venue, Google Assistant offers to help with buying tickets and adding the event to Google Calendar.

It is unknown when Google Lens will launch, but when it does it won’t be a standalone application. Google Lens will be available with Google Assistant and Google Photos.

 

List of Google Products: AdWords; Chrome; Android; AdSense; Analytics & Pixel

Google AdWords

Google AdWords is an online advertising service, developed by Google, where advertisers pay to display brief advertising copy to web users. Google AdWords’ system is partly based on cookies and keywords predefined by the advertisers. Web pages from Google and from partner websites are designed to allow Google to select and display the advertising copy selected. Advertisers pay when users divert their browsing to seek more information about the copy displayed, and partner websites receive a portion of the income that is generated.

AdWords has evolved into Google’s main source of revenue, contributing to Google’s total advertising revenues of USD $43.7 billion in 2012. AdWords offers pay-per-click (PPC) (cost-per-click (CPC) advertising), cost-per-acquisition (CPA) advertising, cost-per-thousand-impressions, or cost per mille (CPM) advertising, site-targeted advertising for text, banner, and rich-media ads, and re-marketing (also known as re-targeting). The AdWords program includes local, national, and international distribution. Google’s text advertisements are short, consisting of one headline of 30 characters, two additional text lines of 40 characters each, and a display URL of 40 characters. Image ads can be one of the several different Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) standard sizes. In May 2016, Google announced its reformatting of ads to help consumers and advertisers succeed in a mobile-first world. The new format, called Expanded Text Ads, allows for 23% more text. This new format is available on both the Google Search Network and the Google Display network. It features two headlines with 30 characters each, to replace the single headline of 30 characters. The new description also allows 80 characters and replaces the two descriptions lines of 35 characters each. The display URL has been replaced with two 15 character paths, and the characters do not include the root domain. Emojis, and other uncharacteristic characters, are not allowed and reviews can be requested.

Sales and support for Google’s AdWords division in the United States is based in Mountain View, California, with major secondary offices in Hyderabad, Dublin, Singapore, Ann Arbor and New York City. The third-largest US facility is in Mountain View, California, headquarters. Engineering for Google AdWords is based in Mountain View, California with major secondary offices in Los Angeles and New York.

Google has an active official public help and support community maintained and frequented by highly experienced AdWords users (referred to as “Top Contributors”) and Google employees. In 2011, AdWords represented 96% of Google’s revenue.

Google Chrome

Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008, for Microsoft Windows, and was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS and Android. Google Chrome is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as a platform for running web apps.

Google releases the majority of Chrome’s source code as the Chromium open-source project. A notable component that is not open-source is the built-in Adobe Flash Player (that Chrome has disabled by default since September 2016). Chrome used the WebKit layout engine until version 27. As of version 28, all Chrome ports except the iOS port use Blink, a fork of the WebKit engine.

As of February 2017, StatCounter estimates that Google Chrome has a 62% worldwide usage share of web browsers as a desktop browser. It also has 52% market share across all platforms combined, because it is also the most popular browser for smartphones. Its success has led to Google expanding the “Chrome” brand name on various other products such as Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox and Chromebase.

Android

Android (stylized as android) is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input. In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, and other electronics.

Android has the largest installed base of all operating systems (OS) of any kind. Android has been the best selling OS on tablets since 2013, and on smartphones it is dominant by any metric.

Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance – a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. As of July 2013, the Google Play store has had over one million Android applications (“apps”) published – including many “business-class apps” that rival competing mobile platforms – and as of May 2016 over 65 billion applications downloaded. An April–May 2013 survey of mobile application developers found that 71% of developers create applications for Android, and a 2015 survey found that 40% of full-time professional developers see Android as their priority target platform, which is comparable to Apple’s iOS on 37% with both platforms far above others. In September 2015, Android had 1.4 billion monthly active devices.

Android’s source code is released by Google under an open source license, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of free and open source and proprietary software, including proprietary software required for accessing Google services. Android is popular with technology companies that require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. Its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems. The success of Android has made it a target for patent (and copyright) litigation as part of the so-called “smartphone wars” between technology companies.

Google AdSense

Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience. These advertisements are administered, sorted, and maintained by Google. They can generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google beta-tested a cost-per-action service, but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). In Q1 2014, Google earned US $3.4 billion ($13.6 billion annualized), or 22% of total revenue, through Google AdSense. AdSense is a participant in the AdChoices program, so AdSense ads typically include the triangle-shaped AdChoices icon. This program also operates on HTTP cookies. Over 14 million websites are using AdSense.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google launched the service in November 2005 after acquiring Urchin. Google Analytics is now the most widely used web analytics service on the Internet. Google Analytics is offered also in two additional versions: the subscription based Google Analytics 360, previously Google Analytics Premium, targeted at enterprise users and Google Analytics for Mobile Apps, an SDK that allows gathering usage data from iOS and Android Apps.

DoubleClick

DoubleClick is a subsidiary of Google which develops and provides Internet ad serving services. Its clients include agencies, marketers (Universal McCann, AKQA etc.) and publishers who serve customers like Microsoft, General Motors, Coca-Cola, Motorola, L’Oréal, Palm, Inc., Apple Inc., Visa USA, Nike, Carlsberg among others. DoubleClick’s headquarters is in New York City, United States. DoubleClick was founded in 1996 by Kevin O’Connor and Dwight Merriman. It was formerly listed as “DCLK” on the NASDAQ, and was purchased by private equity firms Hellman & Friedman and JMI Equity in July 2005. In March 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for US$3.1 billion.

Google Pixel

Google Pixel is a line of consumer electronic devices from Google that run either the Chrome OS or Android operating system. The Pixel line of devices includes the Pixel C tablet, Chromebook Pixel laptops, and the Pixel smartphones and can be bought over the Google Store or at retail stores. On March 1, 2017, Google announced that it is stopping the laptop line as sales are low.

Google announced the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones on October 4, 2016 during the #MadeByGoogle event. The two Smartphones ship with Android 7.1 Nougat.

  • Display: 5.0″ AMOLED display with 1080×1920 pixel resolution (Pixel); 5.5″ AMOLED display with 1440×2560 pixel resolution (Pixel XL). 2.5D Corning Gorilla Glass 4.
  • Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 821
  • Storage: 32 GB or 128 GB
  • Memory: 4 GB LPDDR4 RAM
  • Cameras: 12.3 MP rear camera with f/2.0 lens and IR laser-assisted autofocus; 1,55 μm Pixel size. 8 MP front camera with f/2.4 lens
  • Battery: 2,770 mAH (Pixel); 3,450 mAH (Pixel XL); both are non-removable and have fast charging
  • Colors: Silver, Black, or Really Blue (Limited Edition)
  • Pixel Imprint

Google emphasizes the camera on the two phones, which ranks as the best smartphone camera on DxOMarkMobile with 89 points. This is largely due to software optimizations such as HDR+. The Pixel phones also include unlimited cloud storage for pictures on Google Photos.

Google Patents

Google Patents is a search engine from Google that indexes more than 87 million patents and patent applications with full text from 17 patent offices, including:

  • United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO),
  • European Patent Office (EPO),
  • China’s State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO),
  • Japan Patent Office (JPO),
  • Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO),
  • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO),
  • Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt (DPMA),
  • Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO),
  • Russia, UK, France, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands.

These documents include the entire collection of granted patents and published patent applications from each database (which belong to the public domain). US patent documents date back to 1790, EPO and WIPO to 1978. Optical character recognition (OCR) has been performed on the older US patents to make them searchable, and Google Translate has been used on all non-English patents to make the English translations searchable.

Google Patents also indexes documents from Google Scholar and Google Books, and has machine-classified them with Cooperative Patent Classification codes for searching.

Google Shopping

Google Shopping, formerly Google Product Search, Google Products and Froogle, is a Google service invented by Craig Nevill-Manning which allows users to search for products on online shopping websites and compare prices between different vendors.

Originally, the service listed prices submitted by merchants, and was monetized through AdWords advertising like other Google services. However, in May 2012, Google announced that the service (which was also immediately renamed Google Shopping) would shift in late-2012 to a paid model where merchants would have to pay the company in order to list their products on the service.

Alongside the announcement of an immediate re-brand to Google Shopping on May 31, 2012, Google also announced that in late 2012, it would change the service to use a “pay-to-play” model, where merchants would have to pay Google to list their products on the service, with results influenced by both relevance and the bid amounts they pay. Google justified the move by stating that it would allow the service to “deliver the best answers for people searching for products and help connect merchants with the right customers.”

The change proved controversial; some small businesses showed concern that they would not be able to compete with larger companies that can afford a larger advertising budget. Microsoft’s Bing also attacked the move in an advertising campaign known as “Scroogled”, which called Google out for using “deceptive advertising practices” and suggesting that users use its competing Bing Shopping service instead.

Google also revealed plans to integrate Google Catalogs with Google Shopping, to give users “more ways to find ideas and inspiration as you shop and engage with your favorite brand”.

Google Maps

Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google. It offers satellite imagery, street maps, 360° panoramic views of streets (Street View), real-time traffic conditions (Google Traffic), and route planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle (in beta), or public transportation.

Google maps began as a C++ desktop program designed by Lars and Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen at Where 2 Technologies. In October 2004, the company was acquired by Google, which converted it into a web application. After additional acquisitions of a geospatial data visualization company and a realtime traffic analyzer, Google Maps was launched in February 2005. The service’s front end utilizes JavaScript, XML, and Ajax. Google Maps offers an API that allows maps to be embedded on third-party websites, and offers a locator for urban businesses and other organizations in numerous countries around the world. Google Map Maker allows users to collaboratively expand and update the service’s mapping worldwide.

Google Maps’ satellite view is a “top-down” or “birds eye” view; most of the high-resolution imagery of cities is aerial photography taken from aircraft flying at 800 to 1,500 feet (240 to 460 m), while most other imagery is from satellites. Much of the available satellite imagery is no more than three years old and is updated on a regular basis. Google Maps uses a close variant of the Mercator projection, and therefore cannot accurately show areas around the poles.

The current redesigned version of the desktop application was made available in 2013, alongside the “classic” (pre-2013) version. Google Maps for mobile was released in September 2008 and features GPS turn-by-turn navigation. In August 2013, it was determined to be the world’s most popular app for smartphones, with over 54% of global smartphone owners using it at least once.

In 2012, Google reported having over 7,100 employees and contractors directly working in mapping.

Google Images

Google Images is a search service owned by Google and introduced on July 12, 2001, that allows users to search the Web for image content. The keywords for the image search are based on the filename of the image, the link text pointing to the image, and text adjacent to the image. When searching for an image, a thumbnail of each matching image is displayed. When the user clicks on a thumbnail, the image is played in a box over the website that it came from. The user can then close the box and browse the website, or view the full-sized image.

Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents. While Google does not publish the size of Google Scholar’s database, third-party researchers estimated it to contain roughly 160 million documents as of May 2014 and an earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80-90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million. This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the web.

Google Scholar is similar in function to the freely available CiteSeerX and getCITED. It also resembles the subscription-based tools, Elsevier’s Scopus and Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science.

Google Finance

Google Finance is a website launched on March 21, 2006, by Google. The service features business and enterprise headlines for many corporations including their financial decisions and major news events. Stock information is available, as are Adobe Flash-based stock price charts which contain marks for major news events and corporate actions. The site also aggregates Google News and Google Blog Search articles about each corporation, though links are not screened and often deemed untrustworthy. Google added advertising to its finance page on November 18, 2008, which continues to be shown. Google launched a revamped version of their finance site on December 12, 2006, featuring a new homepage design which lets users see currency information, sector performance for the United States market and a listing of top market movers along with the relevant and important news of the day. A top movers section was also added, based on popularity determined by Google Trends. The upgrade also featured charts containing up to 40 years of data for U.S. stocks, and richer portfolio options. Another update brought real-time ticker updates for stocks to the site, as both NASDAQ and the New York Stock Exchange partnered with Google in June 2008.

Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google’s library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives.

The Publisher Program was first known as ‘Google Print’ when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004.

The Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. But it has also been criticized for potential copyright violations, and lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.

As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, and stated that it intended to scan all of them.

Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search as well as in the dedicated Google Books search website (books.google.com).

In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear, if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees “snippets” of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight.

The four access levels used on Google Books are:

  • Full view: Books in the public domain are available for “full view” and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are also available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
  • Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a “preview” set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. Usually, the publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from copying, downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading “Copyrighted material” appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview.
  • Snippet view: A ‘snippet view’ – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview. This could be because Google cannot identify the owner or the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Also, Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of even snippets can harm the market for the work. Google maintains that no permission is required under copyright law to display the snippet view.
  • No preview: Google also displays search results for books that have not been digitized. As these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata information such as the title, author, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, and in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog.

Google News

Google News is an advertising-supported news aggregator provided and operated by Google, selecting news from thousands of news websites. A beta version was launched in September 2002, and released officially in January 2006. The initial idea was developed by Krishna Bharat.

Google News watches more than 4500 news sources worldwide. Versions for more than 60 regions in 28 languages were available in March 2012. As of September 2015, service is offered in the following 35 languages: Arabic, Bengali, Bulgarian, Cantonese, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian and Vietnamese.

The service covers news articles appearing within the past 30 days on various news websites. In total, Google News aggregates content from more than 25,000 publishers. For the English language, it covers about 4,500 sites; for other languages, fewer. Its front page provides roughly the first 200 characters of the article and a link to its larger content. Websites may or may not require a subscription; sites requiring subscription are noted in the article description.

On December 1, 2009, Google announced changes to their “first click free” program, which has been running since 2008 and allows users to find and read articles behind a paywall. The reader’s first click to the content is free, and the number after that would be set by the content provider.

The layout of Google News underwent a major revision on May 16, 2011. On July 14, 2011, Google introduced “Google News Badges,” which it later retired in October 2012.

Additionally in July 2011, the Sci/Tech section of the English Google News versions was split up into two sections: Science and Technology. It was announced that this section split would be performed on other language versions as well. As of early 2013, this split had not been applied to all language versions of Google News.

In 2017, Google added a section entitled “Executive Orders” specifically targeting the next President, Donald Trump’s, new White House administration. The section was placed third from the top on the Google News page sections for prominent viewing. It received user backlash accusing the change of being “inappropriate and agenda-driven”.

Google Chrome Terms of Service

These Terms of Service apply to the executable code version of Google Chrome. Source code for Google Chrome is available free of charge under open source software licence agreements at chrome://credits.

1. Your relationship with Google

1.1 Your use of Google’s products, software, services and websites (referred to collectively as the “Services” in this document and excluding any services provided to you by Google under a separate written agreement) is subject to the terms of a legal agreement between you and Google. “Google” means Google Inc., whose principal place of business is at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, United States. This document explains how the agreement is made up and sets out some of the terms of that agreement.

1.2 Unless otherwise agreed in writing with Google, your agreement with Google will always include, at a minimum, the terms and conditions set out in this document. These are referred to below as the “Universal Terms”. Open-source software licences for Google Chrome source code constitute separate written agreements. To the limited extent that the open-source software licences expressly supersede these Universal Terms, the open-source licences govern your agreement with Google for the use of Google Chrome or specific included components of Google Chrome.

1.3 Your agreement with Google will also include the terms set forth below in the Google Chrome Additional Terms of Service and terms of any Legal Notices applicable to the Services, in addition to the Universal Terms. All of these are referred to below as the “Additional Terms”. Where Additional Terms apply to a Service, these will be accessible for you to read either within or through your use of that Service.

1.4 The Universal Terms, together with the Additional Terms, form a legally binding agreement between you and Google in relation to your use of the Services. It is important that you take the time to read them carefully. Collectively, this legal agreement is referred to below as the “Terms”.

1.5 If there is any contradiction between what the Additional Terms say and what the Universal Terms say, then the Additional Terms shall take precedence in relation to that Service.

2. Accepting the Terms

2.1 In order to use the Services, you must first agree to the Terms. You may not use the Services if you do not accept the Terms.

2.2 You can accept the Terms by:

(A) clicking to accept or agree to the Terms, where this option is made available to you by Google in the user interface for any Service; or

(B) by actually using the Services. In this case, you understand and agree that Google will treat your use of the Services as acceptance of the Terms from that point onwards.

3. Language of the Terms

3.1 Where Google has provided you with a translation of the English-language version of the Terms, then you agree that the translation is provided for your convenience only and that the English-language versions of the Terms will govern your relationship with Google.

3.2 If there is any contradiction between what the English-language version of the Terms says and what a translation says, then the English-language version shall take precedence.

4. Provision of the Services by Google

4.1 Google has subsidiaries and affiliated legal entities around the world (“Subsidiaries and Affiliates”). Sometimes, these companies will be providing the Services to you on behalf of Google itself. You acknowledge and agree that Subsidiaries and Affiliates will be entitled to provide the Services to you.

4.2 Google is constantly innovating in order to provide the best possible experience for its users. You acknowledge and agree that the form and nature of the Services that Google provides may change from time to time, without prior notice to you.

4.3 As part of this continuing innovation, you acknowledge and agree that Google may stop (permanently or temporarily) providing the Services (or any features within the Services) to you or to users generally at Google’s sole discretion, without prior notice to you. You may stop using the Services at any time. You do not need to specifically inform Google when you stop using the Services.

4.4 You acknowledge and agree that if Google disables access to your account, you may be prevented from accessing the Services, your account details or any files or other content that is contained in your account.

5. Use of the Services by you

5.1 You agree to use the Services only for purposes that are permitted by (a) the Terms and (b) any applicable law, regulation or generally accepted practices or guidelines in the relevant jurisdictions (including any laws regarding the export of data or software to and from the United States or other relevant countries).

5.2 You agree that you will not engage in any activity that interferes with or disrupts the Services (or the servers and networks that are connected to the Services).

5.3 Unless you have been specifically permitted to do so in a separate agreement with Google, you agree that you will not reproduce, duplicate, copy, sell, trade or resell the Services for any purpose.

5.4 You agree that you are solely responsible for (and that Google has no responsibility to you or to any third party for) any breach of your obligations under the Terms and for the consequences (including any loss or damage that Google may suffer) of any such breach.

6. Privacy and your personal information

6.1 For information about Google’s data protection practices, please read Google’s privacy policy at http://www.google.com/privacy.html and at http://www.google.com/chrome/intl/en-GB/privacy.html. This policy explains how Google treats your personal information and protects your privacy when you use the Services.

6.2 You agree to the use of your data in accordance with Google’s privacy policies.

7. Content in the Services

7.1 You understand that all information (such as data files, written text, computer software, music, audio files or other sounds, photographs, videos or other images) that you may have access to as part of, or through your use of the Services are the sole responsibility of the person from which such content originated. All such information is referred to below as the “Content”.

7.2 You should be aware that Content presented to you as part of the Services, including, but not limited to advertisements in the Services and sponsored Content within the Services, may be protected by intellectual property rights that are owned by the sponsors or advertisers who provide that Content to Google (or by other persons or companies on their behalf). You may not modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, distribute or create derivative works based on this Content (either in whole or in part), unless you have been specifically told that you may do so by Google or by the owners of that Content, in a separate agreement.

7.3 Google reserves the right (but shall have no obligation) to prescreen, review, flag, filter, modify, refuse or remove any or all Content from any Service. For some of the Services, Google may provide tools to filter out explicit sexual content. These tools include the SafeSearch preference settings (see https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/510). In addition, there are commercially available services and software to limit access to material that you may find objectionable.

7.4 You understand that by using the Services, you may be exposed to Content that you may find offensive, indecent or objectionable and that, in this respect, you use the Services at your own risk.

7.5 You agree that you are solely responsible for (and that Google has no responsibility to you or to any third party for) any Content that you create, transmit or display while using the Services, and for the consequences of your actions (including any loss or damage that Google may suffer) by doing so.

8. Proprietary rights

8.1 You acknowledge and agree that Google (or Google’s licensors) own all legal right, title and interest in and to the Services, including any intellectual property rights which subsist in the Services (whether those rights happen to be registered or not, and wherever in the world those rights may exist).

8.2 Unless you have agreed otherwise in writing with Google, nothing in the Terms gives you a right to use any of Google’s trade names, trade marks, service marks, logos, domain names and other distinctive brand features.

8.3 If you have been given an explicit right to use any of these brand features in a separate written agreement with Google, then you agree that your use of such features shall be in compliance with that agreement, any applicable provisions of the Terms and Google’s brand-feature use guidelines, as updated from time to time. These guidelines can be viewed online at http://www.google.co.uk/permissions/guidelines.html (or such other URL as Google may provide for this purpose from time to time).

8.4 Google acknowledges and agrees that it obtains no right, title or interest from you (or your licensors) under these Terms in or to any Content that you submit, post, transmit or display on or through the Services, including any intellectual property rights which subsist in that Content (whether those rights happen to be registered or not, and wherever in the world those rights may exist). Unless you have agreed otherwise in writing with Google, you agree that you are responsible for protecting and enforcing those rights and that Google has no obligation to do so on your behalf.

8.5 You agree that you shall not remove, obscure or alter any proprietary rights notices (including copyright and trade-mark notices) that may be affixed to or contained within the Services.

8.6 Unless you have been expressly authorised to do so in writing by Google, you agree that in using the Services, you will not use any trade mark, service mark, trade name, logo of any company or organisation in a way that is likely or intended to cause confusion about the owner or authorised user of such marks, names or logos.

9. Licence from Google

9.1 Google gives you a personal, worldwide, royalty-free, non-assignable and non-exclusive licence to use the software provided to you by Google as part of the Services provided to you by Google (referred to as the “Software” below). This licence is for the sole purpose of enabling you to use and enjoy the benefit of the Services as provided by Google, in the manner permitted by the Terms.

9.2 Subject to section 1.2, you may not (and you may not permit anyone else to) copy, modify, create a derivative work of, reverse-engineer, decompile or otherwise attempt to extract the source code of the Software or any part thereof, unless this is expressly permitted or required by law or unless you have been specifically told that you may do so by Google, in writing.

9.3 Subject to section 1.2, unless Google has given you specific written permission to do so, you may not assign (or grant a sub-licence of) your rights to use the Software, grant a security interest in or over your rights to use the Software, or otherwise transfer any part of your rights to use the Software.

10. Content licence from you

10.1 You retain copyright and any other rights that you already hold in Content which you submit, post or display on or through the Services.

11. Software updates

11.1 The Software that you use may download and install updates automatically, from time to time, from Google. These updates are designed to improve, enhance and further develop the Services and may take the form of bug fixes, enhanced functions, new software modules and completely new versions. You agree to receive such updates (and permit Google to deliver these to you) as part of your use of the Services.

12. Ending your relationship with Google

12.1 The Terms will continue to apply until terminated either by you or Google, as set out below.

12.2 Google may, at any time, terminate its legal agreement with you if:

(A) you have breached any provision of the Terms (or have acted in a manner that clearly shows that you do not intend to or are unable to comply with the provisions of the Terms); or

(B) Google is required to do so by law (for example, where the provision of the Services to you is or becomes unlawful); or

(C) the partner with whom Google offered the Services to you has terminated its relationship with Google or ceased to offer the Services to you; or

(D) Google is transitioning to no longer providing the Services to users in the country in which you are resident or from which you use the service; or

(E) the provision of the Services to you by Google is, in Google’s opinion, no longer commercially viable.

12.3 Nothing in this Section shall affect Google’s rights regarding provision of Services under Section 4 of the Terms.

12.4 When these Terms come to an end, all the legal rights, obligations and liabilities that you and Google have benefited from, been subject to (or which have accrued over time whilst the Terms have been in force), or which are expressed to continue indefinitely, shall be unaffected by this cessation, and the provisions of paragraph 19.7 shall continue to apply to such rights, obligations and liabilities indefinitely.

13. EXCLUSION OF WARRANTIES

13.1 NOTHING IN THESE TERMS, INCLUDING SECTIONS 13 AND 14, SHALL EXCLUDE OR LIMIT GOOGLE’S WARRANTY OR LIABILITY FOR LOSSES THAT MAY NOT BE LAWFULLY EXCLUDED OR LIMITED BY APPLICABLE LAW. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS, OR THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR LOSS OR DAMAGE CAUSED BY NEGLIGENCE, BREACH OF CONTRACT OR BREACH OF IMPLIED TERMS, OR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. ACCORDINGLY, ONLY THE LIMITATIONS THAT ARE LAWFUL IN YOUR JURISDICTION WILL APPLY TO YOU AND OUR LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.

13.2 YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK AND THAT THE SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE”.

13.3 IN PARTICULAR, GOOGLE, ITS SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES, AND ITS LICENSORS DO NOT REPRESENT OR WARRANT TO YOU THAT:

(A) YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS,

(B) YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE OR FREE FROM ERROR,

(C) ANY INFORMATION OBTAINED BY YOU AS A RESULT OF YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES WILL BE ACCURATE OR RELIABLE, AND

(D) THAT DEFECTS IN THE OPERATION OR FUNCTIONALITY OF ANY SOFTWARE PROVIDED TO YOU AS PART OF THE SERVICES WILL BE CORRECTED.

13.4 ANY MATERIAL DOWNLOADED OR OTHERWISE OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF THE SERVICES IS DONE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK, AND YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR OTHER DEVICE. OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS FROM THE DOWNLOAD OF ANY SUCH MATERIAL.

13.5 NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU FROM GOOGLE, OR THROUGH OR FROM THE SERVICES, SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THE TERMS.

13.6 GOOGLE FURTHER EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT.

14. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

14.1 SUBJECT TO OVERALL PROVISION IN PARAGRAPH 13.1 ABOVE, YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT GOOGLE, ITS SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES, AND ITS LICENSORS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR:

(A) ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES THAT MAY BE INCURRED BY YOU, HOWEVER CAUSED AND UNDER ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY. THIS SHALL INCLUDE, BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO ANY LOSS OF PROFIT (WHETHER INCURRED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY), ANY LOSS OF GOODWILL OR BUSINESS REPUTATION, ANY LOSS OF DATA SUFFERED, COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES, OR OTHER INTANGIBLE LOSS;

(B) ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE THAT MAY BE INCURRED BY YOU, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OR DAMAGE AS A RESULT OF:

(I) ANY RELIANCE PLACED BY YOU ON THE COMPLETENESS, ACCURACY OR EXISTENCE OF ANY ADVERTISING, OR AS A RESULT OF ANY RELATIONSHIP OR TRANSACTION BETWEEN YOU AND ANY ADVERTISER OR SPONSOR WHOSE ADVERTISING APPEARS ON THE SERVICES;

(II) ANY CHANGES THAT GOOGLE MAY MAKE TO THE SERVICES OR FOR ANY PERMANENT OR TEMPORARY CESSATION IN THE PROVISION OF THE SERVICES (OR ANY FEATURES WITHIN THE SERVICES);

(III) THE DELETION OF, CORRUPTION OF OR FAILURE TO STORE ANY CONTENT AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS DATA MAINTAINED OR TRANSMITTED BY OR THROUGH YOUR USE OF THE SERVICES;

(IV) YOUR FAILURE TO PROVIDE GOOGLE WITH ACCURATE ACCOUNT INFORMATION;

(V) YOUR FAILURE TO KEEP YOUR PASSWORD OR ACCOUNT DETAILS SECURE AND CONFIDENTIAL;

14.2 THE LIMITATIONS ON GOOGLE’S LIABILITY TO YOU IN PARAGRAPH 14.1 ABOVE SHALL APPLY, WHETHER OR NOT GOOGLE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF OR SHOULD HAVE BEEN AWARE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF ANY SUCH LOSSES ARISING.

15. Copyright and trade mark policies

15.1 It is Google’s policy to respond to notices of alleged copyright infringement that comply with applicable international intellectual property law (including, in the United States, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act) and to terminate the accounts of repeated infringers. Details of Google’s policy can be found at http://www.google.co.uk/dmca.html.

15.2 Google operates a trade mark complaints procedure in respect of Google’s advertising business, details of which can be found at http://www.google.co.uk/tm_complaint.html.

16. Advertisements

16.1 Some of the Services are supported by advertising revenue and may display advertisements and promotions. These advertisements may be targeted to the content of information stored on the Services, queries made through the Services or other information.

16.2 The manner, mode and extent of advertising by Google on the Services are subject to change without specific notice to you.

16.3 In consideration for Google granting you access to and use of the Services, you agree that Google may place such advertising on the Services.

17. Other content

17.1 The Services may include hyperlinks to other websites, or content or resources. Google may have no control over any websites or resources that are provided by companies or persons other than Google.

17.2 You acknowledge and agree that Google is not responsible for the availability of any such external sites or resources and does not endorse any advertising, products or other materials on or available from such websites or resources.

17.3 You acknowledge and agree that Google is not liable for any loss or damage that may be incurred by you as a result of the availability of those external sites or resources, or as a result of any reliance placed by you on the completeness, accuracy or existence of any advertising, products or other materials on or available from such websites or resources.

18. Changes to the Terms

18.1 Google may make changes to the Universal Terms or Additional Terms from time to time. When these changes are made, Google will make a new copy of the Universal Terms available at http://www.google.com/chrome/intl/en-GB/eula_text.html and any new Additional Terms will be made available to you from within or through the affected Services.

18.2 You understand and agree that if you use the Services after the date on which the Universal Terms or Additional Terms have changed, Google will treat your use as acceptance of the updated Universal Terms or Additional Terms.

19. General legal terms

19.1 Sometimes, when you use the Services, you may (as a result of, or in connection with your use of the Services) use a service or download a piece of software, or purchase goods which are provided by another person or company. Your use of these other services, software or goods may be subject to separate terms between you and the company or person concerned. If so, the Terms do not affect your legal relationship with these other companies or individuals.

19.2 The Terms constitute the whole legal agreement between you and Google and govern your use of the Services (but exclude any services that Google may provide to you under a separate written agreement) and completely replace any prior agreements between you and Google in relation to the Services.

19.3 You agree that Google may provide you with notices, including those regarding changes to the Terms, by email, letter post or postings on the Services.

19.4 You agree that if Google does not exercise or enforce any legal right or remedy that is contained in the Terms (or which Google has the benefit of under any applicable law), this will not be taken to be a formal waiver of Google’s rights and that those rights or remedies will still be available to Google.

19.5 If any court of law, having the jurisdiction to decide on this matter, rules that any provision of these Terms is invalid, then that provision will be removed from the Terms without affecting the rest of the Terms. The remaining provisions of the Terms will continue to be valid and enforceable.

19.6 You acknowledge and agree that each member of the group of companies of which Google is the parent shall be third-party beneficiaries to the Terms and that such other companies shall be entitled to directly enforce and rely upon any provision of the Terms that confers a benefit on (or rights in favour of) them. Other than this, no other person or company shall be third-party beneficiaries to the Terms.

19.7 The Terms and your relationship with Google under the Terms shall be governed by the laws of the State of California, without regard to its conflict-of-laws provisions. You and Google agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located within the county of Santa Clara, California to resolve any legal matter arising from the Terms. Notwithstanding this, you agree that Google shall still be allowed to apply for injunctive remedies (or an equivalent type of urgent legal relief) in any jurisdiction.

20. Additional Terms for Extensions for Google Chrome

20.1 These terms in this section apply if you install extensions on your copy of Google Chrome. Extensions are small software programmes, developed by Google or third parties that can modify and enhance the functionality of Google Chrome. Extensions may have greater privileges to access your browser or your computer than regular web pages, including the ability to read and modify your private data.

20.2 From time to time, Google Chrome may check with remote servers (hosted by Google or by third parties) for available updates to extensions, including, but not limited to bug fixes or enhanced functionality. You agree that such updates will be requested automatically, downloaded and installed without further notice to you.

20.3 From time to time, Google may discover an extension that violates Google developer terms or other legal agreements, laws, regulations or policies. Google Chrome will periodically download a list of such extensions from Google’s servers. You agree that Google may remotely disable or remove any such extension from user systems at its sole discretion.

21. Additional Terms for Enterprise Use

21.1 If you are a business entity, then the individual accepting on behalf of the entity (for the avoidance of doubt, for business entities, in these Terms, “you” means the entity) represents and warrants that he or she has the authority to act on your behalf, that you represent that you are duly authorised to do business in the country or countries where you operate and that your employees, officers, representatives and other agents accessing the Service are duly authorised to access Google Chrome and to legally bind you to these Terms.

21.2 Subject to the Terms and in addition to the licence grant in Section 9, Google grants you a non-exclusive, non-transferable licence to reproduce, distribute, install and use Google Chrome solely on machines intended for use by your employees, officers, representatives and agents in connection with your business entity, and provided that their use of Google Chrome will be subject to the Terms.

12 August 2010

 


 

Google Chrome Additional Terms of Service

MPEGLA

THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENCE FOR THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (i) ENCODE VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE AVC STANDARD (“AVC VIDEO”) AND/OR (ii) DECODE AVC VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PARTNER LICENSED TO PROVIDE AVC VIDEO. NO LICENCE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. SEE HTTP://WWW.MPEGLA.COM.

Adobe

Google Chrome may include one or more components provided by Adobe Systems Incorporated and Adobe Software Ireland Limited (collectively, “Adobe”). Your use of the Adobe software, as provided by Google (“Adobe Software”), is subject to the following additional terms (the “Adobe Terms”). You, the entity receiving the Adobe Software, will be hereinafter referred to as “Sublicensee”.

1. Licensing Restrictions.

(a) Flash Player, Version 10.x is designed only as a browser plugin. Sublicensee may not modify or distribute this Adobe Software for use as anything but a browser plugin for playing back content on a web page. For example, Sublicensee will not modify this Adobe Software in order to allow interoperation with applications that run outside the browser (e.g. stand-alone applications, widgets, device UI).

(b) Sublicensee will not expose any APIs of the Flash Player, Version 10.x through a browser plugin interface in such a way that allows such extension to be used to play back content from a web page as a stand-alone application.

(c) The Chrome-Reader Software may not be used to render any PDF or EPUB documents that utilise digital-rights management protocols or systems other than Adobe DRM.

(d) Adobe DRM must be enabled in the Chrome-Reader Software for all Adobe DRM-protected PDF and EPUB documents.

(e) The Chrome-Reader Software may not, other than as explicitly permitted by the technical specifications, disable any capabilities provided by Adobe in the Adobe Software, including, but not limited to, support for PDF and EPUB formats and Adobe DRM.

2. Electronic Transmission. Sublicensee may allow the download of the Adobe Software from a website, the Internet, an intranet or similar technology (“Electronic Transmissions”), provided that Sublicensee agrees that any distributions of the Adobe Software by Sublicensee, including those on CD-ROM, DVD-ROM or other storage media and Electronic Transmissions, if expressly permitted, shall be subject to reasonable security measures to prevent unauthorised use. With relation to Electronic Transmissions approved hereunder, Sublicensee agrees to employ any reasonable usage restrictions set by Adobe, including those related to security and/or the restriction of distribution to end users of the Sublicensee’s Product.

3. EULA and Distribution Terms.

(a) Sublicensee shall ensure that the Adobe Software is distributed to end users under an enforceable end-user licence agreement, in favour of Sublicensee and its suppliers, containing at least each of the following minimum terms (the “End-User Licence”): (i) a prohibition against distribution and copying, (ii) a prohibition against modifications and derivative works, (iii) a prohibition against decompiling, reverse-engineering, disassembling and otherwise reducing the Adobe Software to a human-perceivable form, (iv) a provision indicating ownership of Sublicensee’s Product (as defined in Section 8) by Sublicensee and its licensors, (v) a disclaimer of indirect, special, incidental, punitive and consequential damages and (vi) other industry-standard disclaimers and limitations, including, as applicable: a disclaimer of all applicable statutory warranties, to the full extent allowed by law.

(b) Sublicensee shall ensure that the Adobe Software is distributed to Sublicensee’s distributors under an enforceable distribution licence agreement, in favour of Sublicensee and its suppliers, containing terms as protective of Adobe as the Adobe Terms.

4. Open Source. Sublicensee will not directly or indirectly grant, or purport to grant, to any third party any rights or immunities under Adobe’s intellectual property or proprietary rights that will subject such intellectual property to an open-source licence or scheme in which there is, or could be interpreted to be, a requirement that as a condition of use, modification and/or distribution, the Adobe Software be: (i) disclosed or distributed in source code form; (ii) licensed for the purpose of making derivative works; or (iii) redistributable at no charge. For clarification purposes, the foregoing restriction does not preclude Sublicensee from distributing, and Sublicensee will distribute the Adobe Software as bundled with the Google Software, without charge.

5. Additional Terms. With respect to any update, upgrade and new versions of the Adobe Software (collectively “Upgrades”) provided to Sublicenses, Adobe reserves the right to require additional terms and conditions applicable solely to the Upgrade and future versions thereof, and solely to the extent that such restrictions are imposed by Adobe on all licensees of such Upgrade. If Sublicensee does not agree to such additional terms or conditions, Sublicensee will have no licensing rights with respect to such Upgrade and Sublicensee’s licensing rights with respect to the Adobe Software will terminate automatically on the 90th day from the date that such additional terms are made available to Sublicensee.

6. Proprietary Rights Notices. Sublicensee shall not, and shall require its distributors not to, delete or in any manner alter the copyright notices, trademarks, logos or related notices, or other proprietary rights notices of Adobe (and its licensors, if any) appearing on or within the Adobe Software or accompanying materials.

7. Technical Requirements. Sublicensee and its distributors may only distribute Adobe Software and/or Upgrade on devices that (i) meet the technical specifications posted on http://www.adobe.com/mobile/licensees, (or a successor website thereto) and (ii) have been verified by Adobe, as set forth below.

8. Verification and Update. Sublicensee must submit to Adobe each Sublicensee’s product (and each version thereof) containing the Adobe Software and/or Upgrade (“Sublicensee’s Product”) that do not meet the Device Verification exemption criteria to be communicated by Google, for Adobe to verify. Sublicensee shall pay for each submission made by Sublicensee by procuring verification packages under the Adobe terms applicable at the time set forth at http://flashmobile.adobe.com/. Sublicensee’s Product that has not passed verification may not be distributed. Verification will be accomplished in accordance with the Adobe process applicable at the time described at http://flashmobile.adobe.com/ (“Verification”).

9. Profiles and Device Central. Sublicensee will be prompted to enter certain profile information about the Sublicensee’s Products, either as part of the Verification process or some other method, and Sublicensee will provide such information to Adobe. Adobe may (i) use such profile information as reasonably necessary to verify the Sublicensee’s Product (if such product is subject to Verification), and (ii) display such profile information in “Adobe Device Intelligence system”, located at https://devices.adobe.com/partnerportal/, and made available through Adobe’s authoring and development tools and services to enable developers and end users to see how content or applications are displayed in Sublicensee’s Products (e.g. how video images appear in certain phones).

10. Export. Sublicensee acknowledges that the laws and regulations of the United States restrict the export and re-export of commodities and technical data of United States origin, which may include the Adobe Software. Sublicensee agrees that it will not export or re-export the Adobe Software without the appropriate United States and foreign governmental clearances, if any.

11. Technology Pass-through Terms.

(a) Except pursuant to applicable permissions or agreements therefore, from or with the applicable parties, Sublicensees shall not use, and shall not allow the use of, the Adobe Software for the encoding or decoding of MP3 audio-only (.MP3) data on any non-PC device (e.g. mobile phone or set-top box), nor may the MP3 encoders or decoders contained in the Adobe Software be used or accessed by any product other than the Adobe Software. The Adobe Software may be used for the encoding or decoding of MP3 data contained within an SWF or FLV file, which contains video, picture or other data. Sublicensee shall acknowledge that use of the Adobe Software for non-PC devices, as described in the prohibitions in this section, may require the payment of licensing royalties or other amounts to third parties who may hold intellectual property rights related to the MP3 technology, and that Adobe and Sublicensee have not paid any royalties or other amounts on account of third-party intellectual property rights for such use. If Sublicensee requires an MP3 encoder or decoder for such use, Sublicensee is responsible for obtaining the necessary intellectual property licence, including any applicable patent rights.

(b) Sublicensee will not use, copy, reproduce and modify (i) the On2 source code (provided hereunder as a component of the Source Code), as necessary, to enable the Adobe Software to decode video in the Flash video file format (.flv or .f4v) and (ii) the Sorenson Spark source code (provided hereunder as a component of the Source Code) for the limited purpose of making bug fixes and performance enhancements to the Adobe Software. All codecs provided with the Adobe Software may only be used and distributed as an integrated part of the Adobe Software and may not be accessed by any other application, including other Google applications.

(c) The Source Code may be provided with an AAC codec and/or HE-AAC codec (“the AAC Codec”). Use of the AAC Codec is conditioned on Sublicensee obtaining a proper patent licence covering necessary patents, as provided by VIA Licensing, for end products on or in which the AAC Codec will be used. Sublicensee acknowledges and agrees that Adobe is not providing a patent licence for an AAC Codec under this Agreement to Sublicensee or its sublicensees.

(d) THE SOURCE CODE MAY CONTAIN CODE LICENSED UNDER THE AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENCE FOR THE PERSONAL, NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (i) ENCODE VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE AVC STANDARD (“AVC VIDEO”) AND/OR (ii) DECODE AVC VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL, NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED TO PROVIDE AVC VIDEO. NO LICENCE IS GRANTED OR WILL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. See http://www.mpegla.com

12. Update. Sublicensee will not circumvent Google’s or Adobe’s efforts to update the Adobe Software in all Sublicensee’s products incorporating the Adobe Software as bundled with the Google Software (“Sublicensee’s Products”).

13. Attribution and Proprietary Notices. Sublicensee will list the Adobe Software in publicly available Sublicensee’s Product specifications and include appropriate Adobe Software branding (specifically excluding the Adobe corporate logo) on the Sublicensee’s Product packaging or marketing materials in a manner consistent with branding of other third-party products contained within the Sublicensee’s Product.

14. No Warranty. THE ADOBE SOFTWARE IS MADE AVAILABLE TO SUBLICENSEE FOR USE AND REPRODUCTION “AS IS” AND ADOBE MAKES NO WARRANTY AS TO ITS USE OR PERFORMANCE. ADOBE AND ITS SUPPLIERS DO NOT AND CANNOT WARRANT THE PERFORMANCE OR RESULTS OBTAINED BY USING THE ADOBE SOFTWARE. EXCEPT FOR ANY WARRANTY, CONDITION, REPRESENTATION OR TERM, TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE SAME CANNOT OR MAY NOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED BY LAW APPLICABLE TO SUBLICENSEE IN SUBLICENSEE’S JURISDICTION, ADOBE AND ITS SUPPLIERS MAKE NO WARRANTIES, CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS OR TERMS (EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WHETHER BY STATUTE, COMMON LAW, CUSTOM, USAGE OR OTHERWISE) AS TO ANY MATTER, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD-PARTY RIGHTS, MERCHANTABILITY, INTEGRATION, SATISFACTORY QUALITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SUBLICENSEE AGREES THAT SUBLICENSEE SHALL NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ON BEHALF OF ADOBE.

15. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT WILL ADOBE OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE TO SUBLICENSEE FOR ANY DAMAGES, CLAIMS OR COSTS WHATSOEVER, OR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, OR ANY LOST PROFITS OR LOST SAVINGS, EVEN IF AN ADOBE REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS, DAMAGES, CLAIMS OR COSTS, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY THIRD PARTY. THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS APPLY TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW IN SUBLICENSEE’S JURISDICTION. ADOBE’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY AND THAT OF ITS SUPPLIERS UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE LIMITED TO ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS (US$1,000). Nothing contained in this Agreement limits Adobe’s liability to Sublicensee in the event of death or personal injury resulting from Adobe’s negligence or for the tort of deceit (fraud). Adobe is acting on behalf of its suppliers for the purpose of disclaiming, excluding and/or limiting obligations, warranties and liability, as provided in this Agreement, but in no other respects and for no other purpose.

16. Content Protection Terms

(a) Definitions.

“Compliance and Robustness Rules” means the document setting forth compliance and robustness rules for the Adobe Software, located at http://www.adobe.com/mobile/licensees or a successor website thereto.

“Content Protection Functions” means those aspects of the Adobe Software that are designed to ensure compliance with the Compliance and Robustness Rules, and to prevent playback, copying, modification, redistribution or other actions with respect to digital content distributed for consumption by users of the Adobe Software, when such actions are not authorised by the owners of such digital content or its licensed distributors.

“Content Protection Code” means code within certain designated versions of the Adobe Software that enables certain Content Protection Functions.

“Key” means a cryptographic value contained in the Adobe Software for use in decrypting digital content.

(b) Licensing Restrictions. Sublicensee’s right to exercise the licences with respect to the Adobe Software is subject to the following additional restrictions and obligations. Sublicensee will ensure that Sublicensee’s customers comply with these restrictions and obligations to the same extent imposed on Sublicensee with respect to the Adobe Software; any failure by Sublicensee’s customers to comply with these additional restrictions and obligations shall be treated as a material breach by Sublicensee.

b.1. Sublicensee and customers may only distribute the Adobe Software that meets the Robustness and Compliance Rules as so confirmed by Sublicensee during the verification process described above in the Adobe Terms.

b.2. Sublicensee shall not (i) circumvent the Content Protection Functions of either the Adobe Software or any related Adobe Software that is used to encrypt or decrypt digital content for authorised consumption by users of the Adobe Software or (ii) develop or distribute products that are designed to circumvent the Content Protection Functions of either the Adobe Software or any Adobe Software that is used to encrypt or decrypt digital content for authorised consumption by users of the Adobe Software.

(c) The Keys are hereby designated as Adobe’s Confidential Information and Sublicensee will, with respect to the Keys, adhere to Adobe’s Source Code Handling Procedure (to be provided by Adobe upon request).

(d) Injunctive Relief. Sublicensee agrees that a breach of this Agreement may compromise the Content Protection Functions of the Adobe Software and may cause unique and lasting harm to the interests of Adobe and owners of digital content who rely on such Content Protection Functions, and that monetary damages may be inadequate to compensate fully for such harm. Therefore, Sublicensee further agrees that Adobe may be entitled to seek injunctive relief to prevent or limit the harm caused by any such breach, in addition to monetary damages.

17. Intended Third-party Beneficiary. Adobe Systems Incorporated and Adobe Software Ireland Limited are the intended third-party beneficiaries of Google’s agreement with Sublicensee with respect to the Adobe Software, including, but not limited to, the Adobe Terms. Sublicensee agrees, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in its agreement with Google, that Google may disclose Sublicensee’s identity to Adobe and certify in writing that Sublicensee has entered into a licensing agreement with Google which includes the Adobe Terms. Sublicensee must have an agreement with each of its licensees and if such licensees are allowed to redistribute the Adobe Software, such agreement will include the Adobe Terms.

Google Search Options & Operators

The webpages maintained by the Google Help Center have text describing more than 15 various search options. The Google operator

  • OR – Search for either one, such as “price high OR low” searches for “price high” or “price low”.
  • - (minus sign) – Exclude a word or a phrase, such as “apple -tree” searches where word “tree” is not used.
  • "" – Force inclusion of a word or a phrase (Note that the original + operator was removed on October 19, 2011).
  • * – Wildcard operator to match any words between other specific words, e.g. “type * blood”.
  • .. – Range operator, e.g. “$50..$100”.

Some of the query options are as follows:

  • define: – The query prefix “define:” will provide a definition of the words listed after it.
  • stocks: – After “stocks:” the query terms are treated as stock ticker symbols for lookup.
  • site: – Restrict the results to those websites in the given domain, such as, site:www.acmeacme.com. The option “site:com” will search all domain URLs named with “.com” (no space after “site:”).
  • intext: – Prefix to search in a webpage text, such as “intext:google search” will list pages with word “google” in the text of the page, and word “search” anywhere (no space after “intext:”).
  • allintitle: – Only the page titles are searched (not the remaining text on each webpage).
  • intitle: – Prefix to search in a webpage title, such as “intitle:google search” will list pages with word “google” in title, and word “search” anywhere (no space after “intitle:”).
  • allinurl: – Only the page URL address lines are searched (not the text inside each webpage).
  • inurl: – Prefix for each word to be found in the URL; others words are matched anywhere, such as “inurl:acme search” matches “acme” in a URL, but matches “search” anywhere (no space after “inurl:”).

The page-display options (or query types) are:

  • cache: – Highlights the search-words within the cached document, such as “cache:www.google.com xxx” shows cached content with word “xxx” highlighted.
  • link: – The prefix “link:” will list webpages that have links to the specified webpage, such as “link:www.google.com” lists webpages linking to the Google homepage.
  • related: – The prefix “related:” will list webpages that are “similar” to a specified web page.
  • info: – The prefix “info:” will display some background information about one specified webpage, such as, info:www.google.com. Typically, the info is the first text (160 bytes, about 23 words) contained in the page, displayed in the style of a results entry (for just the 1 page as matching the search).
  • filetype: – results will only show files of the desired type (e.g. filetype:pdf will return pdf files)

G is for Google

As Sergey and I wrote in the original founders letter 11 years ago, “Google is not a conventional company. We do not intend to become one.” As part of that, we also said that you could expect us to make “smaller bets in areas that might seem very speculative or even strange when compared to our current businesses.” From the start, we’ve always strived to do more, and to do important and meaningful things with the resources we have.

We did a lot of things that seemed crazy at the time. Many of those crazy things now have over a billion users, like Google Maps, YouTube, Chrome, and Android. And we haven’t stopped there. We are still trying to do things other people think are crazy but we are super excited about.

We’ve long believed that over time companies tend to get comfortable doing the same thing, just making incremental changes. But in the technology industry, where revolutionary ideas drive the next big growth areas, you need to be a bit uncomfortable to stay relevant.

Our company is operating well today, but we think we can make it cleaner and more accountable. So we are creating a new company, called Alphabet. I am really excited to be running Alphabet as CEO with help from my capable partner, Sergey, as President.

What is Alphabet? Alphabet is mostly a collection of companies. The largest of which, of course, is Google. This newer Google is a bit slimmed down, with the companies that are pretty far afield of our main internet products contained in Alphabet instead. What do we mean by far afield? Good examples are our health efforts: Life Sciences (that works on the glucose-sensing contact lens), and Calico (focused on longevity). Fundamentally, we believe this allows us more management scale, as we can run things independently that aren’t very related.

Alphabet is about businesses prospering through strong leaders and independence. In general, our model is to have a strong CEO who runs each business, with Sergey and me in service to them as needed. We will rigorously handle capital allocation and work to make sure each business is executing well. We’ll also make sure we have a great CEO for each business, and we’ll determine their compensation. In addition, with this new structure we plan to implement segment reporting for our Q4 results, where Google financials will be provided separately than those for the rest of Alphabet businesses as a whole.

This new structure will allow us to keep tremendous focus on the extraordinary opportunities we have inside of Google. A key part of this is Sundar Pichai. Sundar has been saying the things I would have said (and sometimes better!) for quite some time now, and I’ve been tremendously enjoying our work together. He has really stepped up since October of last year, when he took on product and engineering responsibility for our internet businesses. Sergey and I have been super excited about his progress and dedication to the company. And it is clear to us and our board that it is time for Sundar to be CEO of Google. I feel very fortunate to have someone as talented as he is to run the slightly slimmed down Google and this frees up time for me to continue to scale our aspirations. I have been spending quite a bit of time with Sundar, helping him and the company in any way I can, and I will of course continue to do that. Google itself is also making all sorts of new products, and I know Sundar will always be focused on innovation—continuing to stretch boundaries. I know he deeply cares that we can continue to make big strides on our core mission to organize the world’s information. Recent launches like Google Photos and Google Now using machine learning are amazing progress. Google also has some services that are run with their own identity, like YouTube. Susan is doing a great job as CEO, running a strong brand and driving incredible growth.

Sergey and I are seriously in the business of starting new things. Alphabet will also include our X lab, which incubates new efforts like Wing, our drone delivery effort. We are also stoked about growing our investment arms, Ventures and Capital, as part of this new structure.

Alphabet Inc. will replace Google Inc. as the publicly-traded entity and all shares of Google will automatically convert into the same number of shares of Alphabet, with all of the same rights. Google will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alphabet. Our two classes of shares will continue to trade on Nasdaq as GOOGL and GOOG.

For Sergey and me this is a very exciting new chapter in the life of Google—the birth of Alphabet. We liked the name Alphabet because it means a collection of letters that represent language, one of humanity’s most important innovations, and is the core of how we index with Google search! We also like that it means alpha‑bet (Alpha is investment return above benchmark), which we strive for! I should add that we are not intending for this to be a big consumer brand with related products—the whole point is that Alphabet companies should have independence and develop their own brands.

We are excited about…

  • Getting more ambitious things done.
  • Taking the long-term view.
  • Empowering great entrepreneurs and companies to flourish.
  • Investing at the scale of the opportunities and resources we see.
  • Improving the transparency and oversight of what we’re doing.
  • Making Google even better through greater focus.
  • And hopefully… as a result of all this, improving the lives of as many people as we can.

What could be better? No wonder we are excited to get to work with everyone in the Alphabet family. Don’t worry, we’re still getting used to the name too!

Larry Page

Google/Alphabet’s 2015 Founders’ Letter

Larry Page, CEO, Alphabet

In August, I announced Alphabet and our new structure and shared my thoughts on how we were thinking about the future of our business. (It is reprinted here in case you missed it, as it seems to apply just as much today). I’m really pleased with how Alphabet is going. I am also very pleased with Sundar’s performance as our new Google CEO. Since the majority of our big bets are in Google, I wanted to give him most of the bully-pulpit here to reflect on Google’s accomplishments and share his vision. In the future, you should expect that Sundar, Sergey and I will use this space to give you a good personal overview of where we are and where we are going.

Sundar Pichai, CEO, Google

When Larry and Sergey founded Google in 1998, there were about 300 million people online. By and large, they were sitting in a chair, logging on to a desktop machine, typing searches on a big keyboard connected to a big, bulky monitor. Today, that number is around 3 billion people, many of them searching for information on tiny devices they carry with them wherever they go.

In many ways, the founding mission of Google back in ’98 — “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful” — is even truer and more important to tackle today, in a world where people look to their devices to help organize their day, get them from one place to another, and keep in touch. The mobile phone really has become the remote control for our daily lives, and we’re communicating, consuming, educating, and entertaining ourselves, on our phones, in ways unimaginable just a few years ago.

Knowledge for everyone: search and assistance

As we said when we announced Alphabet, “the new structure will allow us to keep tremendous focus on the extraordinary opportunities we have inside of Google.” Those opportunities live within our mission, and today we are about one thing above all else: making information and knowledge available for everyone.

This of course brings us to Search — the very core of this company. It’s easy to take Search for granted after so many years, but it’s amazing to think just how far it has come and still has to go. I still remember the days when 10 bare blue links on a desktop page helped you navigate to different parts of the Internet. Contrast that to today, where the majority of our searches come from mobile, and an increasing number of them via voice. These queries get harder and harder with each passing year — people want more local, more context-specific information, and they want it at their fingertips. So we’ve made it possible for you to search for [Leonardo diCaprio movies] or [Zika virus] and get a rich panel of facts and visuals. You can also get answers via Google Now — like the weather in your upcoming vacation spot, or when you should leave for the airport — without you even needing to ask the question.

Helping you find information that gets you through your day extends well beyond the classic search query. Think, for example, of the number of photos you and your family have taken throughout your life, all of your memories. Collectively, people will take 1 trillion photos this year with their devices. So we launched Google Photos to make it easier for people to organize their photos and videos, keep them safe, and be able to find them when they want to, on whatever device they are using. Photos launched less than a year ago and already has more than 100 million monthly active users. Or take Google Maps. When you ask us about a location, you don’t just want to know how to get from point A to point B. Depending on the context, you may want to know what time is best to avoid the crowds, whether the store you’re looking for is open right now, or what the best things to do are in a destination you’re visiting for the first time.

But all of this is just a start. There is still much work to be done to make Search and our Google services more helpful to you throughout your day. You should be able to move seamlessly across Google services in a natural way, and get assistance that understands your context, situation, and needs — all while respecting your privacy and protecting your data. The average parent has different needs than the average college student. Similarly, a user wants different help when in the car versus the living room. Smart assistance should understand all of these things and be helpful at the right time, in the right way.

The power of machine learning and artificial intelligence

A key driver behind all of this work has been our long-term investment in machine learning and AI. It’s what allows you to use your voice to search for information, to translate the web from one language to another, to filter the spam from your inbox, to search for “hugs” in your photos and actually pull up pictures of people hugging … to solve many of the problems we encounter in daily life. It’s what has allowed us to build products that get better over time, making them increasingly useful and helpful.

We’ve been building the best AI team and tools for years, and recent breakthroughs will allow us to do even more. This past March, DeepMind’s AlphaGo took on Lee Sedol, a legendary Go master, becoming the first program to beat a professional at the most complex game mankind ever devised. The implications for this victory are, literally, game changing — and the ultimate winner is humanity. This is another important step toward creating artificial intelligence that can help us in everything from accomplishing our daily tasks and travels, to eventually tackling even bigger challenges like climate change and cancer diagnosis.

More great content, in more places

In the early days of the Internet, people thought of information primarily in terms of web pages. Our focus on our core mission has led us to many efforts over the years to improve discovery, creation, and monetization of content — from indexing images, video, and the news, to building platforms like Google Play and YouTube. And with the migration to mobile, people are watching more videos, playing more games, listening to more music, reading more books, and using more apps than ever before.

That’s why we have worked hard to make YouTube and Google Play useful platforms for discovering and delivering great content from creators and developers to our users, when they want it, on whatever screen is in front of them. Google Play reaches more than 1 billion Android users. And YouTube is the number-one destination for video — over 1 billion users per month visit the site — and ranks among the year’s most downloaded mobile apps. In fact, the amount of time people spend watching videos on YouTube continues to grow rapidly — and more than half of this watchtime now happens on mobile. As we look to the future, we aim to provide more choice to YouTube fans — more ways for them to engage with creators and each other, and more ways for them to get great content. We’ve started down this journey with specialized apps like YouTube Kids, as well as through our YouTube Red subscription service, which allows fans to get all of YouTube without ads, a premium YouTube Music experience and exclusive access to new original series and movies from top YouTube creators like PewDiePie and Lilly Singh.

We also continue to invest in the mobile web — which is a vital source of traffic for the vast majority of websites. Over this past year, Google has worked closely with publishers, developers, and others in the ecosystem to help make the mobile web a smoother, faster experience for users. A good example is the Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) project, which we launched as an open-source initiative in partnership with news publishers, to help them create mobile-optimized content that loads instantly everywhere. The other example is Progressive Web Apps (PWA), which combine the best of the web and the best of apps—allowing companies to build mobile sites that load quickly, send push notifications, have home screen icons, and much more. And finally, we continue to invest in improving Chrome on mobile — in the four short years since launch, it has just passed 1 billion monthly active users on mobile.

Of course, great content requires investment. Whether you’re talking about Google’s web search, or a compelling news article you read in The New York Times or The Guardian, or watching a video on YouTube, advertising helps fund content for millions and millions of people. So we work hard to build great ad products that people find useful — and that give revenue back to creators and publishers.

Powerful computing platforms

Just a decade ago, computing was still synonymous with big computers that sat on our desks. Then, over just a few years, the keys to powerful computing — processors and sensors — became so small and cheap that they allowed for the proliferation of supercomputers that fit into our pockets: mobile phones. Android has helped drive this scale: it has more than 1.4 billion 30-day-active devices — and growing.

Today’s proliferation of “screens” goes well beyond phones, desktops, and tablets. Already, there are exciting developments as screens extend to your car, like Android Auto, or your wrist, like Android Wear. Virtual reality is also showing incredible promise — Google Cardboard has introduced more than 5 million people to the incredible, immersive and educational possibilities of VR.

Looking to the future, the next big step will be for the very concept of the “device” to fade away. Over time, the computer itself — whatever its form factor — will be an intelligent assistant helping you through your day. We will move from mobile first to an AI first world.

Enterprise

Most of these computing experiences are very likely to be built in the cloud. The cloud is more secure, more cost effective, and it provides the ability to easily take advantage of the latest technology advances, be it more automated operations, machine learning, or more intelligent office productivity tools.

Google started in the cloud and has been investing in infrastructure, data management, analytics, and AI from the very beginning. We now have a broad and growing set of enterprise offerings: Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Google Apps, Chromebooks, Android, image recognition, speech translation, maps, machine learning for customers’ proprietary data sets, and more. Our customers like Whirlpool, Land O’Lakes and Spotify are transforming their businesses by using our enterprise productivity suite of Google Apps and Google Cloud Platform services.

As we look to our long-term investments in our productivity tools supported by our machine learning and artificial intelligence efforts, we see huge opportunities to dramatically improve how people work. Your phone should proactively bring up the right documents, schedule and map your meetings, let people know if you are late, suggest responses to messages, handle your payments and expenses, etc.

Building for everyone

Whether it’s a developer using Google Cloud Platform to power their new application, or a creator finding new income and viewers via YouTube, we believe in leveling the playing field for everyone. The Internet is one of the world’s most powerful equalizers, and we see it as our job to make it available to as many people as possible.

This belief has been a core Google principle from the very start — remember that Google Search was in the hands of millions long before the idea for Google advertising was born. We work on advertising because it’s what allows us to make our services free; Google Search works the same for anyone with an Internet connection, whether it is in a modern high-rise or a rural schoolhouse.

Making this possible is a lot more complicated than simply translating a product or launching a local country domain. Poor infrastructure keeps billions of people around the world locked out of all of the possibilities the web may offer them. That’s why we make it possible for there to be a $50 Android phone, or a $100 Chromebook. It’s why this year we launched Maps with turn-by-turn navigation that works even without an Internet connection, and made it possible for people to get faster-loading, streamlined Google Search if they are on a slower network. We want to make sure that no matter who you are or where you are or how advanced the device you are using … Google works for you.

In all we do, Google will continue to strive to make sure that remains true — to build technology for everyone. Farmers in Kenya use Google Search to keep up with crop prices and make sure they can make a good living. A classroom in Wisconsin can take a field trip to the Sistine Chapel … just by holding a pair of Cardboard goggles. People everywhere can use their voices to share new perspectives, and connect with others, by creating and watching videos on YouTube. Information can be shared — knowledge can flow — from anyone, to anywhere. In 17 years, it’s remarkable to me the degree to which the company has stayed true to our original vision for what Google should do, and what we should become.

For us, technology is not about the devices or the products we build. Those aren’t the end-goals. Technology is a democratizing force, empowering people through information. Google is an information company. It was when it was founded, and it is today. And it’s what people do with that information that amazes and inspires me every day.

Sundar Pichai
CEO, Google

Larry’s Alphabet Letter

G is for Google.

As Sergey and I wrote in the original founders letter 11 years ago, “Google is not a conventional company. We do not intend to become one.” As part of that, we also said that you could expect us to make “smaller bets in areas that might seem very speculative or even strange when compared to our current businesses.” From the start, we’ve always strived to do more, and to do important and meaningful things with the resources we have.

We did a lot of things that seemed crazy at the time. Many of those crazy things now have over a billion users, like Google Maps, YouTube, Chrome, and Android. And we haven’t stopped there. We are still trying to do things other people think are crazy but we are super excited about.

We’ve long believed that over time companies tend to get comfortable doing the same thing, just making incremental changes. But in the technology industry, where revolutionary ideas drive the next big growth areas, you need to be a bit uncomfortable to stay relevant.

Our company is operating well today, but we think we can make it cleaner and more accountable. So we are creating a new company, called Alphabet. I am really excited to be running Alphabet as CEO with help from my capable partner, Sergey, as President.

What is Alphabet? Alphabet is mostly a collection of companies. The largest of which, of course, is Google. This newer Google is a bit slimmed down, with the companies that are pretty far afield of our main internet products contained in Alphabet instead. What do we mean by far afield? Good examples are our health efforts: Life Sciences (that works on the glucose-sensing contact lens), and Calico (focused on longevity). Fundamentally, we believe this allows us more management scale, as we can run things independently that aren’t very related.

Alphabet is about businesses prospering through strong leaders and independence. In general, our model is to have a strong CEO who runs each business, with Sergey and me in service to them as needed. We will rigorously handle capital allocation and work to make sure each business is executing well. We’ll also make sure we have a great CEO for each business, and we’ll determine their compensation. In addition, with this new structure we plan to implement segment reporting for our Q4 results, where Google financials will be provided separately than those for the rest of Alphabet businesses as a whole.

This new structure will allow us to keep tremendous focus on the extraordinary opportunities we have inside of Google. A key part of this is Sundar Pichai. Sundar has been saying the things I would have said (and sometimes better!) for quite some time now, and I’ve been tremendously enjoying our work together. He has really stepped up since October of last year, when he took on product and engineering responsibility for our internet businesses. Sergey and I have been super excited about his progress and dedication to the company. And it is clear to us and our board that it is time for Sundar to be CEO of Google. I feel very fortunate to have someone as talented as he is to run the slightly slimmed down Google and this frees up time for me to continue to scale our aspirations. I have been spending quite a bit of time with Sundar, helping him and the company in any way I can, and I will of course continue to do that. Google itself is also making all sorts of new products, and I know Sundar will always be focused on innovation—continuing to stretch boundaries. I know he deeply cares that we can continue to make big strides on our core mission to organize the world’s information. Recent launches like Google Photos and Google Now using machine learning are amazing progress. Google also has some services that are run with their own identity, like YouTube. Susan is doing a great job as CEO, running a strong brand and driving incredible growth.

Sergey and I are seriously in the business of starting new things. Alphabet will also include our X lab, which incubates new efforts like Wing, our drone delivery effort. We are also stoked about growing our investment arms, Ventures and Capital, as part of this new structure.

Alphabet Inc. will replace Google Inc. as the publicly-traded entity and all shares of Google will automatically convert into the same number of shares of Alphabet, with all of the same rights. Google will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alphabet. Our two classes of shares will continue to trade on Nasdaq as GOOGL and GOOG.

For Sergey and me this is a very exciting new chapter in the life of Google—the birth of Alphabet. We liked the name Alphabet because it means a collection of letters that represent language, one of humanity’s most important innovations, and is the core of how we index with Google search! We also like that it means alpha‑bet (Alpha is investment return above benchmark), which we strive for! I should add that we are not intending for this to be a big consumer brand with related products—the whole point is that Alphabet companies should have independence and develop their own brands.

We are excited about…

  • Getting more ambitious things done.
  • Taking the long-term view.
  • Empowering great entrepreneurs and companies to flourish.
  • Investing at the scale of the opportunities and resources we see.
  • Improving the transparency and oversight of what we’re doing.
  • Making Google even better through greater focus.
  • And hopefully… as a result of all this, improving the lives of as many people as we can.

What could be better? No wonder we are excited to get to work with everyone in the Alphabet family. Don’t worry, we’re still getting used to the name too!

Larry Page
CEO, Alphabet